Lymphatic vessels, Lymph fluid, Lymph nodes, and Lymph organs
Where are lymphatic vessels found?
throughout the body
What is the job of the lymphatic vessels?
It drains lymph fluid into the venous system
Name the components in lymph fluid.
Interstitial fluid(less proteins), lymphocytes, and various macrophages
What are the lymph nodes/organs surrounded by?
Dense fibrous connective tissue
Name the lymph nodes/organs.
The spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and tonsils
Name the first function of the lymphatic system.
It produces an immune response by invading organisms(bacteria and viruses), abnormal cells, and foreign particles
Name the second function of the lymphatic system.
Its responsible for the production, distribution, and maintenance of lymphocytes which is called lymphopoiesis which occurs in the bone marrow and thymus
What are T-Cells?
theyre cells that are thymus dependent, and make up 80% of circulating lymphocytes (agranular)
Name the types of t-cells.
Cytotoxics, Helper T's, Supressor T's, and Memory T cells
What is the function of cytotoxic T cells?
They attack cells invaded by viruses
What are the functions of helper T cells and supressor T cells?
They assist in immune response and activate B cells
When are memory T cells produced?
Following exposure to a particular antigen and are on reserve if the same antigen reappears
What are B cells?
Theyre bone marrow dependent cells that make up 10 to 15% of circulating lymphocytes. They differentiate into plasma cells and produce antibodies that are agranular
Name the components of B cells.
Memory B cells, Helper T cells, and Supressor T cells
What are memory B cells?
Cells similar to memory T cells
What is the job of helper T cells that are bone marrow dependent?
They promote differentiation of plasma cells and accelarate production of antibodies
What is the job of supressor T cells that are bone marrow dependent?
They inhibit formation of plasma cells and reduce production of antibodies
What are NK cells?
Theyre cells that make up 5 to 10% of circulating lymphocytes and are granular lymphocytes that attack foreign cells or normal cells invaded with virus and cancer cells
What do the primary lymph organs produce?
Name the primary lymph organs responsible for the storage of lymphocytes.
Bone marrow and the thymus
What are the secondary organs and what are they responsible for?
Theyre triggered by immune response and theyre immature or activated lymphocytes that divide to produce additional lymphocytes
Name the secondary organs responsible for the storage of lymphocytes.
the spleen, lymph nodes, and lymph nodules
What lymph nodes are responsible for the storage of lymphocytes?
The small organs
What are lymph nodules?
Theyre lymphocytes that are densely packed within loose connective tissue and are found in the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
Name the general functions of the lymphatic system.
It produces an immune respons, stores lymphocytes, maintains blood volume, maintinas interstitial fluid, and is responsible for lipid absorption and transport
When the lymphatic system maintins the blood volume what else does it do in those regards?
It returns an equal amount of interstitial fluid to the blood stream
what components of the lymphatic system are responsible for the absorption and transport of lipids?
What are the components of the lymphatic vasculature?
Lymphatic capillaries and Lymphatic vessels
Name the component of the lymphatic capillaries.
Blind end vessels
Where do the blind end vessels go?
They lead away from the tissue
Name the characteristic of lymphatic vessels.
Theyre low in pressure
Name the component of the lymphatic vessels.
Where do one-way valves go?
They move the fluid towards the ducts
Name the components of the lymphatic system that are involved in the circulation path.
Interstitial fluid, lymphatic capillaries, and lymphatic vessels, lymphatic ducts, and veins
Where do the right lymphatic ducts drain?
From the right side of the head, thorax, and upper extremities into the right subclavian and the left drains into the left subclavian
What are nodules?
Theyre lymphocytes in loose connective tissue that line the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
Name the different types of nodules.
Germinal centers, Tonsils, Peyers patches, and appendix
What do the germinal centers contain?
active dividing lymphocytes
What are the tonsils?
Theyre large nodules in the walls of the pharynx that remove pathogens from food and air
How many tonsils are there?
Name types of tonsils.
1 pharyngeal, 2 palatine, and 2 lingual
Where are peyer's patches found?
In the small intestine and are the mucosa layer
Whats another name for the pharyngeal tonsil?
Where is the pharyngeal tonsil found?
In the nasopharynx
Where are the palatine tonsils found?
in the posterior oral cavity (pharynx and soft palate)
Where are the lingual tonsils found?
Theyre not visible but are found at the base of the tongue
How are the nodes described and what is their job?
Theyre the more defined structures and they filter lymph fluid
Name the components of the external anatomy of the nodes.
Capsule/trabeculae, Hilus, Afferent vessels, and Efferent vessel
What are the capsules/trabeculae?
Theyre dense fibrous connective tissue that are fibrous extensions which extend into the node
What is the hilus a site for?
Where blood vessels and nerves attach(indentation)
What is the job of the afferent vessels?
They carry fluid from tissues into the node
What do the efferent vessels do?
They carry fluid out of the node
Name the components of the internal anatomy of the nodes.
The subscapular sinus, Outer cortex, Deep cortex, and medulla
What is the subscapular sinus?
Its the area where lymph enters first and is a network of branching reticular fibers, macrophages, and dendritic cells that collect antigens from lymph and this is where the T cells are activated if they encounter antigens
Name the components of the outer cortex of the internal anatomy of the nodes.
The aggragated B cells with germinal centers and the dendritic cells
What are found in the deep cortex?
What does the medulla of the internal anatomy of the node contain?
B cells and plasma cells that are organized in medullary cords
What is the thymus responsible for?
The production and maturation of T cells
How long does it take for the thymus to produce a T cell?
When does the thymus involute?
Once the thymus involutes what happens to it?
It decreases in size and the functional cells are replaced by connective tissue
Name the components of the anatomy of the thymus.
2 lobes, and epithelial cells
Name the 2 types of lobes in the anatomy of the thymus.
Septae and Lobules
Describe the septae lobe of the thymus.
Its a fibrous partition
Name the components of the lobule lobe of the anatomy of the thymus.
The cortex and medulla
Describe the cortex of the lobule.
Its the outer layer of the lobule that contains lymphoid stem cells that mature into T cells
What happens in the medulla portion of the lobule.
T cells migrate here and remain inactive
What is another name for the epithelial cells of the anatomy of the thymus?
Name the components of the epithelial cells of he anatomy of the thymus.
Thymic hormones and Hassalls corpuscles
What is the job of the thymic hormones in the epithelial cells of the anatomy of the thymus.
They promote the differentiation of T cells
Name the different types of stem cells in the bone marrow.
Stem cells in B cells NK cells and T cells
What happens with the B cells and NK cells stem cells in bone marrow?
They mature there and then migrate into peripheral tissues
What do the NK cells do in the bone marrow?
It continuously circulates through peripheral tissues
Where do the B cells in the bone marrow migrate?
To the lymph nodes, spleen, and lymphatic tissues
Where do the stem cells of the T cells migrate to?
What is the largest lymphoid organ?
Where is the spleen located?
It lies dorsolateral to the stomach
What does the spleen contain?
The lymph nodules
What is the job of the spleen?
It filters the blood, not the lymph and it removes debris and abnormal red blood cells
What does the spleen store?
It stores Iron(Fe) that are recycled from hemoglobin
What does the spleen trigger?
B and T cell immune response
describe the diaphragmatic surface of the spleen.
Its smooth and conforms in shape to the diaphragm
Describe the visceral surface of the spleen?
Its an indentation and the shape conforms to the stomach and kidney
What components are categorized under the hilus of the spleen?
The splenic artery and vein and the lymphatics
Where is the capsule located?
It surrounds the spleen and is comprised of collagen and elastic fibers
Name the components of the capsule of the spleen.
The red pulp and White pulp
What is found in the red pulp of the capsule?
Red blood cells and fixed macrophages
What is found in the white pulp of the capsule of the spleen?
The lymph nodules
Name the pathways of filtered blood.
Splenic artery, Trabecular arteries, Sinusoids, Small veins, Trabecular veins, Splenic vein, and Heart