20 terms

1: Structure and bonding

Understanding structure and bonding are vital to success in Organic Chemistry. Get ready to ace your Organic Chemistry class by mastering these fundamentals with this free study set!
STUDY
PLAY
isotopes
Atoms with the same atomic number but different masses (same number of protons, but different number of neutrons)
covalent bond
Two atoms share a pair of electrons
octet rule
The tendency for main group elements, eg. C, N, O, to attain eight electrons in their valence shells
lone pair (non-bonding electrons)
Valence electrons that are not involved in bonding
sigma bond (σ bond)
A bond formed by end-on overlap of two atomic orbitals along a line between the two nuclei
pi bond (π bond)
A bond formed by sideways overlap of atomic orbitals, resulting in electron density above and below a line between the two nuclei
hybridization
Conceptually, combining atomic orbitals to obtain hybrid atomic orbitals in a way that facilitates the description of bonding within a molecule
sp³
Hybrid atomic orbitals that arise from the combination of one s orbital and three p orbitals
sp²
Hybrid atomic orbitals that arise from the combination of one s orbital and two p orbitals
sp
Hybrid atomic orbitals that arise from the combination of one s orbital with one p orbital
tetrahedral
Arrangement of four groups around a central atom, with maximum distance between them (~ 109.5° bond angles)
trigonal planar
Arrangement of three groups around a central atom, with maximum distance between them (~ 120° bond angles)
linear
Arrangement of two groups around a central atom, with maximum distance between them (~ 180° bond angles)
Lewis structure
A structure diagram that shows bonds as pairs of dots or lines between two atoms, and non-bonded (lone pair) electrons as pairs of dots
condensed structure
A structure diagram that shows no bonds, instead implying bonds by clustering atoms and groups of atoms together
line-bond structure (bond-line structure)
A structure diagram that avoids explicitly showing carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms that are attached to carbon
functional group
A characteristic group of atoms and/or bonds that have predictable chemical behaviors
formal charge
In a structure diagram, the charge associated with an atom which does not possess the appropriate number of valence electrons
resonance structures (resonance forms)
Alternate structure diagrams for a molecule which can be interconverted by shifting only π and non-bonding valence electrons
resonance hybrid
A single, unchanging structure which can be represented by multiple resonance structures (forms)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR