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57 terms

Chapter 6

STUDY
PLAY
Data
raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event
Information
data converted into a meaningful and useful text
Information Granularity
the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed or coarse and abstract)
type (transactional and analytical), timeliness, and quality
Characteristics that help determine the value of information
Transactional and Analytical
2 primary types of information
Transactional Information
encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unity of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks (ex. airline ticket, sales receipt, packing slip, etc.)
Analytical Information
encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks (ex. product statistics, sales projections, future growth, and trends)
Real-time Information
immediate, up-to-date information
Real-time Systems
provide real-time information in response to query requests; make faster and more effective decisions, keep smaller inventories, operate more efficiently, and track performance more carefully
real-time systems
What do many organizations use to exploit key corporate transactional information?
5 common characteristics of high quality information
Accuracy, completeness, consistency, uniqueness, and timeliness
Issues with low quality information
missing information, incomplete information, probably duplication, potential wrong information, inaccuracy information, and incomplete information
online customers intentional enter inaccurate information to protect their privacy, different systems have different information entry standards and formats, call center operators enter abbreviated or erroneous information by accident or to save time, 3rd party and external information contains inconsistencies, inaccuracies, and errors
4 primary sources of low quality information
in a database
Where is organizational information stored?
Database management system (DBMS)
software through which users and application programs interact with a database
Database management system
DBMS
Schema
describes the objects that are represented in the database and the relationships among them
Databased models (data models)
number of different ways of organizing a schema/modeling the database structure
Relational Model
What is the most commonly used model today?
Database
maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees, and places (warehouses)
Hierarchical database model
information is organized into a tree-like structure that allows repeating information using parent/child relationships in such a way that it cannot have too many relationships
network database model
flexible way of representing objects and their relationships; allows each record to have multiple parent and child records, forming a lattice structure
relational database model
type of database that stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables
entity
in the relational database model, is a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is store
attributes
fields or columns, characteristics or properties of an entity class
primary key
field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table; provide a way of distinguishing each entity in a table
foreign key
primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the 2 tables
advantages of database information
increased flexibility, increased scalability and performance, reduced information redundancy, increased information integrity (quality), and increased information security
physical view
physical storage of information on a storage device such as a hard disk
logical view
how users logically access information to meet their particular business needs
scalability
refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands
performance
how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction
redundancy
duplication of information, or storing the same information in multiple places
information integrity
measure of the quality of information
integrity constraints
rules that help ensure the quality of information
relational and business-critical
2 types of integrity constraints
relational integrity constraints
rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints
business-critical integrity constraints
enforce business rules vital to an organization's success
Business-critical
Which integrity constraint often requires more insight and knowledge?
directly and indirectly
2 primary ways that users can interact with a DBMS
data-driven website
interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers through the use of a database; especially useful when the site offers a great deal of information, products, or services and/or continually changing information
data-driven website advantages
development, content management, future expandability, minimizing human error, cutting production and update costs, more efficient, & improved stability
integration
allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other
forward and backward or central repository
2 integration methods
forward integration
takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes
backward integration
takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes
data warehouse
logical collection of information--gathered from many different operational databases--that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks
extraction, transformation, and loading
ETL
extraction, transformation, and loading
process that extracts information from internal and external database, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse
data mart
contains a subset of data warehouse information
cube
common term for the representation of multidimensional information
information cleansing or scrubbing
process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information
data mining
process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone
data-mining tools
use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information and infer rules from them that predict future behavior and guide decision-making
individual, department, and enterprise
What are the 3 informational levels?
document, presentation, spreadsheet, database
What are the 4 information formats?
detail (fine), summary, aggregate (coarse)
What are the 3 information granularities?