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raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event


data converted into a meaningful and useful text

Information Granularity

the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed or coarse and abstract)

type (transactional and analytical), timeliness, and quality

Characteristics that help determine the value of information

Transactional and Analytical

2 primary types of information

Transactional Information

encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unity of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks (ex. airline ticket, sales receipt, packing slip, etc.)

Analytical Information

encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks (ex. product statistics, sales projections, future growth, and trends)

Real-time Information

immediate, up-to-date information

Real-time Systems

provide real-time information in response to query requests; make faster and more effective decisions, keep smaller inventories, operate more efficiently, and track performance more carefully

real-time systems

What do many organizations use to exploit key corporate transactional information?

5 common characteristics of high quality information

Accuracy, completeness, consistency, uniqueness, and timeliness

Issues with low quality information

missing information, incomplete information, probably duplication, potential wrong information, inaccuracy information, and incomplete information

online customers intentional enter inaccurate information to protect their privacy, different systems have different information entry standards and formats, call center operators enter abbreviated or erroneous information by accident or to save time, 3rd party and external information contains inconsistencies, inaccuracies, and errors

4 primary sources of low quality information

in a database

Where is organizational information stored?

Database management system (DBMS)

software through which users and application programs interact with a database

Database management system



describes the objects that are represented in the database and the relationships among them

Databased models (data models)

number of different ways of organizing a schema/modeling the database structure

Relational Model

What is the most commonly used model today?


maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees, and places (warehouses)

Hierarchical database model

information is organized into a tree-like structure that allows repeating information using parent/child relationships in such a way that it cannot have too many relationships

network database model

flexible way of representing objects and their relationships; allows each record to have multiple parent and child records, forming a lattice structure

relational database model

type of database that stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables


in the relational database model, is a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is store


fields or columns, characteristics or properties of an entity class

primary key

field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table; provide a way of distinguishing each entity in a table

foreign key

primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the 2 tables

advantages of database information

increased flexibility, increased scalability and performance, reduced information redundancy, increased information integrity (quality), and increased information security

physical view

physical storage of information on a storage device such as a hard disk

logical view

how users logically access information to meet their particular business needs


refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands


how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction


duplication of information, or storing the same information in multiple places

information integrity

measure of the quality of information

integrity constraints

rules that help ensure the quality of information

relational and business-critical

2 types of integrity constraints

relational integrity constraints

rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints

business-critical integrity constraints

enforce business rules vital to an organization's success


Which integrity constraint often requires more insight and knowledge?

directly and indirectly

2 primary ways that users can interact with a DBMS

data-driven website

interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers through the use of a database; especially useful when the site offers a great deal of information, products, or services and/or continually changing information

data-driven website advantages

development, content management, future expandability, minimizing human error, cutting production and update costs, more efficient, & improved stability


allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other

forward and backward or central repository

2 integration methods

forward integration

takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes

backward integration

takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes

data warehouse

logical collection of information--gathered from many different operational databases--that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks

extraction, transformation, and loading


extraction, transformation, and loading

process that extracts information from internal and external database, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse

data mart

contains a subset of data warehouse information


common term for the representation of multidimensional information

information cleansing or scrubbing

process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information

data mining

process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone

data-mining tools

use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information and infer rules from them that predict future behavior and guide decision-making

individual, department, and enterprise

What are the 3 informational levels?

document, presentation, spreadsheet, database

What are the 4 information formats?

detail (fine), summary, aggregate (coarse)

What are the 3 information granularities?

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