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VT 104 Quiz 1: Immunity & Defense and The Cardiovascular System
Terms in this set (64)
The right atrioventricular valve is also known as the _____________ valve.
Being immune to a pathogen because there has been a previous exposure and immune response to it is known as
The QRS complex on a normal, Lead II ECG (EKG) represents
Which of the following is usually not associated with the 2nd Line of Defense?
Which of the following cells are considered Antigen-Presenting Cells?
neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B-cells
The first set of vessels that emerge from the right side of the heart and carry DEoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs are called
Which cells are considered the link between the nonspecific defenses (2nd Line of Defense) and the Specific (3rd Line) Defenses?
antgen-presenting cells (APCs)
Which 2 cells are similar in that they both promote inflammation by the chemicals they release?
basophils and mast cells
Cell-mediated immunity includes the
activation of T-cells.
Which structure enables fetal blood to travel directly from the right atrium to the left atrium.
Which of the following is NOT considered one of the characteristics of inflammation.
Signaling proteins secreted by various immune system cells that have an effect on the behavior of other immune system cells are called
Diapedesis refers to the ability of white blood cells to transform into other white blood cells.
Diapedesis refers to the ability of leukocytes to SQUEEZE OUT OF CAPILLARIES into tissues where they are needed.
Humoral Immunity refers to
the activation of B-cells
If cow "B" (below) receives antibodies from cow "A" who was exposed to antigens, cow B will acquire
The best representative cell for the character "A" is
The second yellow arrow FROM THE LEFT represents
The cell (largest) on the bottom right is a
Which Line of Defense will this person have to rely on at this point?
2nd Line of Defense
The name of the process depicted by the yellow arrow below is
If the red arrow is a B-cell, the yellow arrow is most likely pointing to a
Which of the following letters corresponds to immunity involving lysozymes and phospholipases?
Match the letter in the left column with the correct term in the right column based on the image below.
Which of the following letters represents a line of defense in which the microbes in or on the animal produce chemicals that kill other microbes or pathogens?
A type of cytokine that is known to disrupt or block protein synthesis in cells infected with viruses as well as degrade viral RNA is known as
Which of the following cells are most likely to contribute to initiating the inflammatory response?
Which of the following cells are long-lived and respond to the same antigen when exposed at a later date?
In passive immunity, memory B and T-cells are not being formed.
The transmission of antibodies from the mother to the newborn via colostrum is known as which type of immunity?
Substances, including bacterial toxins released by bacteria, breakdown products of proteins, and pathogen particles that cause the host to get a fever are called
Which of the following is not considered part of the 1st Line of Defense?
The sound of ONE complete heartbeat can be described as
Which of the following are the 4 potential openings (i.e. "holes") that exist in the right atrium?
cranial vena cava, caudal vena cava, coronary sinus orifice, and the right atrioventricular valve
Another name for the left atrioventricular valve is the
Which of the following animals have a 3-chambered heart?
amphibians and reptiles
lood that is being pumped OUT of the left ventricle will have to pass through the ___________ valve.
Which structure enables blood to bypass the liver in a fetus?
The vessels that branch off the aorta and supply the heart itself with blood are called the
In order to listen to the loudest heart sounds, the veterinarian below most likely has her stethoscope placed over the
left 5th intercostal space
F" below is the
left cephalic vein
Match the description in the left column with the best term in the right column based on the image below.
red arrow= coronary sinus
yellow arrow= orifice of the coronary sinus
D= Ventricular depolarization
F= Ventricular repolarization
G= Atrial contraction
The black arrow is pointing to the
Select the term that best describes the specific structure "D" in the image below.
pulmonary semilunar valve
The vessel in the pelvic limb image below is the
The letters below represent lines of defense known as
The 1st Line of Defense
Which hormone is secreted by the left atrial appendage?
The "lub" sound of "lub dub" is the sound of the left and right atrioventricular valves snapping shut
and the DUB sound is the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves snapping shut
Which of the following structures is the oxygen source for the fetus?
Which of the following T-lymphocytes are responsible for stimulating OTHER T and B-cells to divide and differenatiate?
Which layer of the pericardium is closer to the surface of the heart?
The serous pericardium
Blood being pumped out of the RIGHT ventricle will have to pass through the _________valve
The vessels that carry newly oxygenated blood (from the lungs) and connect to the left atrium are called the
Which structures prevent the atrioventricular valves from bending back into the atria during ventricular contraction
Match the letter on the left column (and on the image below) with the correct anatomical term on the right.
A (the vessel, not the chamber)= cranial vena cava
B= pulmonary veins
C= caudal vena cava
D= left ventricle
E= left atrium
F (the valve at this location)= pulmonary semilunar valve
G (the valve at this location)= aortic semilunar valve
H= chordae tendineae
I= aortic arch
J= pulmonary trunk
Which of the following is the correct order in which the heart muscles conduct an electrochemical impulse (depolarization) through the specialized cardiac muscle cell groups/structures?
SA node, AV node, AV bundle, left and right bundle branches, and Perkinje fibers
Tears, sweat, and saliva have enzymes that break down cell walls and act as an antibiotic.
Tears, sweat, and saliva contain lysozyme and phospholipase which can break down cell walls and therefore act as an antib
Which of the following veins are commonly used for venipuncture that were discussed in class and included in the PowerPoint/notes?
The volume of blood that is pumped out of the heart in milliliters per minute is known as the
The SA node is located in the wall of which chamber?
An ECG (or EKG) represents
the heart's electrical activity over time.
A P-wave on an ECG (EKG) represents
The First Line of Defense is also known as
External Innate Immunity
Each naive (inactivated) B-cell and T-cell is coated with a single type of specific receptor that compliments a single type of antigen
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