War of 1812
War between US and Britain; America declared war in 1812 because of trade restrictions, impressments, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, and humiliation of American honor.
Oliver H. Perry
Served in the war of 1812 and earned the title of "Hero of Lake Erie" for leading American forces in a decisive naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie.
Battle of Lake Erie
Fought on September 10, 1813 in Lake Erie during the War of 1812; 9 vessels from the US Navy defeated and captured 6 vessels of Great Britain's Royal Navy; ensured American control of the lake and allowed Americans to recover Detroit and win the Battle of the Thames to break the Indian confederation of Tecumseh; biggest naval battle of the War of 1812.
Burning of DC
August 24,1814 (during the War of 1812); British Army occupied Washington DC and set fire to many public buildings following the American defeat at the Battle of Bladensburg; Facilities of the US Government (i.e. White House and Capitol) were largely destroyed.
Defense of Ft. McHenry
The poem that later become our national anthem written by Francis Scott Key after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British Royal Navy ships in Chesapeake Bay during the Battle of Ft. McHenry in the War of 1812.
Wm. Henry Harrison
9th president of the United States who died days after elected into office; gained national fame for leading US forces against American Indians in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811; general in the War of 1812, his most notable contribution was the victory at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
7th president; commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815; dominated American politics in the 1820's and 1830's; shaped modern Democratic Party; protector of popular democracy and individual liberty for American citizens but also supported slavery and Indian removal; nicknamed "Old Hickory."
Star Spangled Banner
National anthem of the US; lyrics come from "Defense of Fort McHenry" written by Francis Scott Key after witnessing bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British Royal Navy ships in Chesapeake Bay during the Battle of Fort McHenry in the War of 1812.
Treaty of Ghent
Signed on December 24, 1814 in Ghent, Belgium; peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the US and Britain; treaty largely resorted relations between 2 nations to status quo ante bellum; news of treaty did not spread back to American until after the Battle of New Orleans had begun.
Battle of New Orleans
January 8, 1815; Final major battle of the War of 1812; Major General Andrew Jackson and his American Forces defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory America had acquired in the Louisiana Purchase.
American statesman who represented Kentucky in the Senate and the House of Representatives where he served as Speaker; served as Secretary of State from 1825-1829; leading war hawk and played a significant role in leading the nation in the War of 1812; invented the American System; opposed the annexation of Texas, Mexican American War, and Manifest Destiny; nicknamed The Great Compromiser; member of the Great Triumvirate along with Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun.
Members of the 12th Congress of the US who advocated waging war against the British in the War of 1812.
December 15, 1814-January 4, 1815; New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the US was discussed; the return of status quo ante bellum disgraced the Federalist Party, which disbanded in most places.
Treaty between US and Britain enacted in 1817; Signed April 28-29, 1817 in Washington DC; provided for the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain; agreement indicated improving relations between US/Britain in the period following the War of 1812; negotiated by Secretary of State Richard Rush and British Minister to Washington Sir Charles Bagot.
American author best known for The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle; Along with James Fenimore Cooper was among the first American writers to earn acclaim in Europe.
American naval officer notable for his heroism in the Barbary Wars and the War of 1812; first American celebrated as a nation military hero who had not fought in the American Revolution.
Tariff of 1816
Protective tariff enforced between 1816-1824; formed the basis of the Compromise of 1833, ending the Nullification Crisis in which South Carolina had threatened secession from the US; Introduced by Secretary of Treasury Alexander J. Dallas and advocated by Speaker of the House Henry Clay; Daniel Webster and John Randolph strongly opposed.
The American System
aka American Way; mercantilist economic plan based on the "American School" ideas of Alexander Hamilton consisting of a high tariff to support internal improvement; plan was advanced by the Whig Party, more specifically Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and John Quincy Adams.
Era of Good Feelings
1816-1824; Period in the US political history in which partisan bitterness abated; took place during James Monroe's presidency.
Panic of 1819
First major financial crisis in the US that occurred during the end of the Era of Good Feelings; resulted from international conflicts such as the Embargo Act and War of 1812.
An agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery faction in the US Congress involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories; prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36 degrees 30 inches north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.
5th president serving from 1817-1825; presidency marked the Era of Good Feelings, Panic of 1819, and a fierce national debate over the admission of the Missouri Territory; noted for Monroe Doctrine (1823); negotiated the Louisiana Purchase; served as Secretary of State and Secretary of War during the War of 1812 under President James Madison.
Euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South; popular expression in the legislative bodies.
John Quincy Adams
6th president from 1825-1829; served in the Senate and House of Representatives; son of President John Adams; helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine as Secretary of State; lost his re-election to Andrew Jackson; viewed as one of the greatest diplomats in American history.
Leading American statesman during the Antebellum Period; leader of the Whig Party, opposed Jackson and the Democratic Party; spokesman for modernization, banking, and industry; served in the House of Representatives, Senate, and Secretary of State for 3 presidents; successful lawyer; member of the Great Triumvirate with Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
4th president from 1809-1817; author and "Father of the Constitution;" co-wrote the Federalist Papers and wrote the Bill of Rights; secretly co-authored the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798; as Secretary of State for Jefferson he supervised the Louisiana Purchase, sponsored the Embargo Act of 1807; poorly prepared the nation into the War of 1812; supported the creation of the second National Bank and high tariff in 1815.
Policy that was introduced on December 2,1823 that asserted that the Western Hemisphere was not to be further colonized by European countries and the that US would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries.
aka Transcontinental Treaty of 1819; settled a border dispute in North America between the US and Spain; treaty was a result of increasing tension between the US and Spain regarding territorial rights at a time of weakened Spanish power; the treaty ceded Florida to the US, settled a boundary dispute along the Sabine River, and firmly established the boundary of the US territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean in exchange for the US paying residents' claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5 million and relinquishing its own claims on parts of Texas west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase.
John Quincy Adams vs. Andrew Jackson (and William H. Crawford and Henry Clay); John Quincy is elected by decision of the House of Representatives; only election in which the presidency had to be decided by the House because no candidate received a majority of electoral college votes and the only election in which the president with the most electoral votes was not elected president.
Election of 1824- No president received a majority of electoral votes leaving the House of Representatives to select the next president; the House selected John Quincy Adams over Andrew Jackson even though Jackson had received much more votes in the regular election; widely believed that Speaker of the House Henry Clay convinced Congress to elect Adams who then made Clay his Secretary of State.
originally Telemaque; African American slave brought to the US from the Caribbean; After purchasing his freedom he planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the US; Word of his plans got out and at Charleston South Carolina authorities arrested him before the uprising could begin.
Andrew Jackson vs. John Quincy Adams; John C. Calhoun is Jackson's Vice and also served as Quincy Adams' Vice; Jackson won in a "landslide."
A practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory and as an incentive to keep working for the party.
A nickname given to Andrew Jackson because he was a strong president who used the office to forcefully pursue his own agenda; given to him by his many political opponents that feared his use of power.
Tariff of Abominations
aka The Tariff of 1828; A protective tariff passed by Congress designed to protect industry in the northern US; southerners labeled it the Tariff of Abominations because of the effects it had on the Southern economy; led to the Nullification Crisis.
John C. Calhoun
Vice President under Andrew Jackson; leading Southern politician; began his political career as a nationalist and an advocate of protective tariffs, later he becomes an advocate of free trade, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.
South Carolina Exposition
Written in 1828 by John C. Calhoun; Document that protests against the Tariff of 1828 and stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede; led to Calhoun's Doctrine of Nullification which had the same idea as the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification; Ordinance declared by the power of the Sate itself that the federal Tariff of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional.
Trail of Tears
The forcible relocation and movement of Native Americans (specifically 5 Civilized Tribes) from their homelands to the Indian Territory; brought about by the Indian Removal Act of 1830 signed into law by president Andrew Jackson.
Indian Removal Act
Part of the Indian Removal policy that was signed into law by Andrew Jackson in 1830; strongly supported in the South where states were eager to gain access to lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes.
Influential leader of the Seminoles; led a small bands of warriors in the Second Seminole War when the US tried to remove the Seminoles from their land.
The Bank War
Name given to the controversy over the Second Bank of the United States and the attempts to destroy it by President Andrew Jackson; the only nationwide bank at the time and along with president Nicholas Biddle exerted tremendous influence over the nation's financial system; Jackson viewed second bank as a monopoly; vetoed the renewal charter in 1832.
Leading American statesman during the nation's Antebellum Period; his increasing nationalistic views led to him becoming one of the most influential leaders of the Whig Party of the Second Party System; led opposition against Andrew Jackson and the Democrats.
Birth of the Whig Party
Started by modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as a dangerous man on horseback with a reactionary opposition to the forces of social, economic and moral modernization; majority of founders supported Jeffersonian Democracy/ Democratic- Republican Party; Republicans who formed the party were led by Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams.
Term used by political opponents of Andrew Jackson to describe the collection of unofficial advisers he consulted in parallel to the United States Cabinet following his purge of the cabinet at the end of the Eaton Affair and his break with VP John C. Calhoun 1831.
Martin Van Buren
8th president; Secretary of State under Andrew Jackson from 1829-1831; key organizer of the Democratic Party/ key in building organizational structure for Jacksonian democracy and dominant figure in the Second Party System; his administration was largely characterized by the Panic of 1837, Aroostook War, and Caroline Affair.
Martin Van Buren defeated William Henry Harrison and Hugh Lawson White (Whig Party) ; election predominantly remembered for 3 reasons- first/only election in which a Vice Presidential election was thrown into the Senate, the only race in which a major political party intentionally ran several presidential candidates (Whigs), last election (until 1988) to result in the elevation of an incumbent Vice President to the nation's highest office through means other than the president's death or resignation.
Executive order issued by President Andrew Jackson in 1836 and carried out by President Martin Van Buren; required payment for government land to be in gold and silver.
Panic of 1837
Financial crisis in the US built on a speculative fever; May 10, 1837 New York City- every band began to accept payment only in specie (gold and silver coinage); based on the assumption by former president Andrew Jackson that the government was selling lad for state bank notes of questionable value; Panic followed a 5-year depression with the failure of banks and record high unemployment levels.
aka Independent Treasury; System for the retaining of government funds in the US Treasury and its sub treasuries, independently of the national banking and financial systems; existed from 1846- 1921.
Gone to Texas; phrase used by Americans immigrating to Texas in the 19th century often to escape debt incurred during the Panic of 1819; Moving to Texas which at the time was part of Mexico was particularly popular among debtors from the South and West; phrase often written on the doors of abandoned houses or posted as a sign on fences.
Texan Independence War- 1836
Military conflict between Mexico and settlers in Texas; October 2, 1835- April 21, 1836; Animosity between the Mexican government and Texians began when Mexican Pres. Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna abolished the federal Constitution of 1824 and proclaimed more centralizing 1835 Constitution in its place; Sam Houston led the Texian Army to victory over a portion of the Mexican Army under Santa Anna; resulted in the creation of the Republic of Texas in 1836.
Led the Texian Army to victory which led to the creation of the Republic of Texas; first and third President of the Republic of Texas.
William Henry Harrison defeated Martin Van Buren; ran as a Whig; died 30 days into office.
Maysville Road Veto
May 27, 1830- President Andrew Jackson vetoed a bill which would allow the Federal government to purchase stock in the Maysville, Washington, Paris, and Lexington Turnpike Road Company which had been organized to construct a road linking Lexington and the Ohio River, the entirety of which would be in Kentucky; Jackson vetoed the bill on the grounds that federal funding of intrastate project of this nature was unconstitutional and declared that such bills violated the principle that the government shouldn't be an economic affair.
Peggy Eaton Affair
1830-1831; Scandal involving members of President Andrew Jackson's Cabinet and their wives; Second Lady Florida Calhoun led other Cabinet wives in an "anti-Peggy" coalition after Peggy married John Henry Eaton; led to the "reorganization" of Jackson's cabinet and the forced resignation of John C. Calhoun.
Famous debate in the US between Daniel Webster (Senator of MA) and Robert Y. Hayne (Senator of South Carolina); January 19-27, 1830; regarding protectionist tariffs; heated speeches between Webster and Hayne were unplanned and stemmed from debate over a resolution by Connecticut Senator Samuel Foote calling for the temporary suspension of further land surveying until land already on the market was sold; Webster's "Second Reply to Hayne" (1830).