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chapter 13

Greek City- State Pair

Athens and Sparta


A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule


structures that carried water over long distances


the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler




the lawmaking branch of the British government

Berlin Wall

In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989

Folk Art

handmade items, such as pottery, woodcarving, and traditional costumes, produced by professional artisans


opposition to and discrimination against Jews

Cultural Crossroads

A place where various cultures cross paths

Silicon Glen

the section of Scotland between Glasgow and Edinburgh, named for its high concentration of high-tech companies


The contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries


The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history


Birthplace of the Renaissance


A republic, contrlled most of the empire

Catholic Rulers

Ferdinand and Isabella

Christopher Columbus

1492 sailed to the Portugal

Alexander the Great

coquered Persia and part of India

Bubonic Plaque

a deadly disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century, killing millions of people


controlled Iberian Peninsula for more than 700 years

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