28 terms


A process of growth in the living conditions of people through education and technology.
developed country
A country that has progressed more than other country's.
developing country
A country that has low industrial production and little modern technology they are less developed.
Human Development Index (HDI)
How the level of development for each country is measured based of education, technology, ect.
Gross National Income (GNI)
The value of the exports and services produced in a country including money that leaves and enters the country
Purchasing Power Parity PPP
the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' purchasing power.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
A measurement of the total goods and services produced within a country.
Primary Sector
economy concerned with extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, or mining
Secondary Sector
economy concerned with manufacturing and making products with materials such as raw materials
Tertiary Sector
economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, all goods and services to people in exchange for some form of money
The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
Value Added
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
Pupil/teacher ratio
The number of enrolled students divided by the number of teachers
Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)
A modification of the HDI to account for inequality.
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)
Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
Gender Inequality Index (GII)
A measure of the extent of each country's gender inequality
Female Labor Force Participation Rate
The percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside the home
Maternal Mortality Rate
Number of deaths per thousand of women giving birth.
Adolescent fertility rate
The number of births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19
Brandt Line
divides the more developed north from the less developed south
Foreign Direct Investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
Structural Adjustment Program
Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.
provision of small loans and other financial services to individuals and small businesses in developing countries
fair trade
Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
free trade
international trade free of government interference
cooperative store
A member-owned, member-governed business that operates for the benefit of its members according to common principles agreed upon by the international cooperative community.
Millenium Development Goals (MDGs)
The UN's creation of eight goals for economic development and social progress in 2000. Members agreed to reach the goals by 2015.
1. Eliminate extreme poverty
2. Guarantee universal education
3. Promote equality for women
4. Reduce child mortality rates
5. Better maternal health services and reduction of maternal mortality rate
6. Reduce spread snd improve treatment for HIV/AIDS and other diseases
7. Environmentally sustainable development
8. Global development partnerships among member nations
Sustainable Development Goals
Seventeen goals adopted by the U.N. in 2015 to reduce disparities between developed and developing countries by 2030.

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