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Homogenous Solution

Same throughout

Heterogenous Solution

Different components can be easily distinguished


The MAJOR component of a solution


The minor component of a solution

Characteristics of Solutions

*Distribution of particles is uniform
*Components do not separate upon standing
*Cannot be separated into its components by filtration
*Different concentration of solvent/solute combination are possible
*Solutions are almost always transparent (not necessarily colorless)
*Solutions can be separated into pure components


The maximum amount of a solute that dissolves in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature.
*Each solid has a different solubility in every liquid
*Some liquids are insoluble to each other
*Other liquids have limited solubility in each other


Solute and solvent are mutually soluble in each other at any ratio.

Saturated Solution

A solution in which the solvent contains the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved at equilibrium at a given temperature

Unsaturated Solution

A solution that contains less than the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved at a given temperature

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains more than the equilibrium amount of a solute that can be dissolved in at any given temperature. When this solution is disturbed in any way, the excess solute separates and the equilibrium solubility is restored

"like likes like"

The nature of the solvent and solute.
* the more similar the two compounds are, the more likely it is that one is soluble in the other

"like dissolves like"

*the more similar the two compounds are, the more likely it is that one will dissolve in the other


*the solubility generally increases as temperature increases. vice versa


*pressure has little effect on the solubility of liquids or solids in each other.
*the solubility of a gas in a liquid increases as pressure increases

Weight of solute per volume of solution


Weight of solute per weight of solution


Volume of solute per volume of solution



moles of solute per liter of solution
* Molarity (M) = moles of solute (n)/liter of solution (L)


If we dilute a solution, the number of moles of solute remains the same after dilution.
* M(1)V(1) = M(2)V(2)

Parts per million (ppm)

1 mg of solute per 1,000,000 mg

Parts per billion (ppb)

1 mg of solute per 1,000,000,000 mg

H2O and Ionic Compounds

*Ionic solids consist of a regular array of positive and negative ions
*H2O is a polar molecule, with positive and negative regions
*Ions dissolved in H2O are said to be hydrated (surrounded by water molecules)

Waters of Hydration

The attraction between ions and H2O is so strong that water molecules are a part of the crystal structure of many solids


A substance that conducts electric current when dissolved in water. A substance that does not conduct electricity is called a nonelectrolyte.
*Ions dissolved in water can migrate from one place to another, maintaining their charge as they migrate
*cations migrate to the negative electrode
*anions migrate to the positive electrode

Strong Electrolyte

A compound that dissociates completely to ions in an aqueous solution

Weak Electrolyte

A compound that only partially dissociates to ions in an aqueous solution


A solution in which the solute particle diameter is between 1nm and 1000nm
*Have large surface areas, which accounts for these two characteristics:
-They scatter light; look cloudy, milky
-They form stable dispersions, they do not settle out of solution

Tyndall Effect

A phenomenon in which light passing through a colloid is scattered by colloidal-sized particles

Brownian Motion

The random motion of colloid-size particles

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