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POLS 1150 Exam 4
Terms in this set (59)
Less Developed Countries (LDCs)
Countries at a relatively low level of economic development.
Basic structures necessary for social activity, such as transportation and telecommunications networks, and power and water supply.
Raw materials and agricultural products, typically unprocessed or only slightly processed. The primary sectors are distinguished from secondary sectors (industry) and tertiary sectors (services).
Characterizing an industry whose markets are dominated by a few firms.
Terms of Trade
The relationship between a country's export prices and its import prices.
Import Substituting Industrialization (ISI)
A set of policies, pursued by most developing countries from the 1930s through the 1980s, to reduce imports and encourage domestic manufacturing, often through trade barriers, subsidies to manufacturing, and state ownership of basic industries.
Export - Oriented Industrialization (EOI)
A set of policies, originally pursued starting in the late 1960s by several East Asian countries, to spur manufacturing for export, often through subsidies and incentives for export production.
An array of policy recommendations generally advocated by developed - country economists and policy makers starting in the 1980s, including trade liberalization, privatization, openness to foreign investment, and restrictive monetary and fiscal policies.
Group of 77
A coalition of developing countries in the United Nations, formed in 1964 with 77 members, it has grown to over 130 members but maintains the original name.
New International Economic Order
A reorganization of the management of the international economy demanded by LDCs in the 1970s in order to make it more favorable to developing nations.
The rights possessed by all individuals by virtue of being human, regardless of their status as citizens of particular states or members of a group or organization.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
Adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948, this declaration defines a "common standard of achievement for all peoples" and forms the foundation of modern human rights law.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
The agreement completed in 1966 and in force from 1976 that details the basic civil and political rights of individuals and nations.
International Covenant of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
The agreement completed in 1966 and in force from 1976 that specifies the basic economic, social, and cultural rights of individuals and nations.
International Bill of Rights
Refers collectively to the UDHR, the ICCPR, and the ICESCR. Together, these three agreements form the core of the international human rights regime.
Rights that cannot be suspended for any reason, including at times of public emergency.
Prisoners of Conscience (POCs)
A label coined and used by the human rights organization Amnesty International to refer to individuals imprisoned solely because of the peaceful expression of their beliefs.
A right that permits individuals to petition appropriate international legal bodies directly if they believe a state has violated their rights.
International Criminal Court (ICC)
A court of last resort for human rights cases that possesses jurisdiction only if the accused is a national of a state party, the crime took place on the territory of a state party, or the UN Security Council has referred the case to the prosecutor.
According to Raul Prebisch and the Economic Commission for Latin America, the value of the raw materials and agricultural goods tend to ___________ relative to the value of the manufactured goods exported by developed countries.
Colonial and postcolonial political institutions in North and South America developed differently because
Extreme economic inequality in South America translated into political inequality.
Declining terms of trade were expected to disadvantage what group of countries?
less developed countries.
How do domestic institutions affect a country's economic growth?
Biased and undemocratic institutions generally stifle growth.
How is voting power within the International Monetary Fund distributed?
The United States has enough power to veto any proposal.
The World Trade Organization generally pushes for
Greater trade openness and liberalization.
What are primary products?
Agricultural goods and raw materials.
What is a policy we would expect a country undergoing import-substituting industrialization to pursue?
Provisions of loans to firms at below the market's interest rate.
What is an oligopolistic industry?
One in which a few companies dominate.
What is one effort LDCs have made to improve their level of economic development?
The New International Economic Order.
What is the effect of import-substitution industrialization?
It replaces imported goods with domestically made goods.
What is the Group of 77?
A coalition of developing countries.
What is the resource curse?
When the discovery of natural resources paradoxically gives rise to poverty.
Where are most of the world's poorest countries located?
Which is a policy associated with the Washington Consensus?
Which of the following is NOT a type of infrastructure important for development?
Political infrastructure, such as legislatures and bureaucracies.
which of the following statements accurately reflects the relationship between geography and development?
Poor countries tend to be located in the tropics and suffer from less favorable weather and higher rates of infectious disease than wealthy countries,
Which organization is an example of a commodity cartel?
Which statement best describes international trade in cotton and other agricultural commodities?
Trade is distorted by massive subsidies offered by the United States and other developed countries to protect their farmers.
Why did OPEC restrict the supply of oil in 1973?
to increase the global price of oil
Globally, how have human rights practices changed over the last 20 years?
They have not changed noticeably.
How do regional trade agreements influence human rights?
Many directly link good human rights practices to trade benefits.
How has human rights law evolved since the 1990s?
There is a greater focus on noncriminal and nonjudicial forms of reconciliation.
How has the United States reacted to the International Criminal Court?
It signed the treaty creating the court, but later withdrew its signature.
In general, what type of state most frequently ratifies human rights treaties?
Those with poor human rights practices.
In the context of human rights, what are TANs?
Transnational advocacy networks.
Nongovernmental organizations like Amnesty International play an important role in enforcing human rights standards around the world by
Naming and shaming governments that violate human rights.
The idea that people are by nature free and equal and therefore possess certain basic rights that are not contingent on the laws, customs, or beliefs of any particular society or government was first articulated by
The most frequent and deadliest form of violence in global politics today is by
Governments against their own citizens.
What are nonderogable rights?
rights that can never be suspended.
What does it mean to state that provisions of international law are "not self-executing"?
The law's provisions do not become enforceable domestically until enacted in domestic law by the national legislature.
What is democide?
When a government kills its own citizens
What is extraterritoriality?
The attempt by a state to prosecute its citizens for human rights abuses in another country.
What is transnational justice?
A change in international human rights law that places a greater emphasis on amnesty and reconciliation rather than punishment.
When did the push for the international protection of human rights gain the most traction?
Which document, adopted by the United Nations in 1948, defined a "common standard of achievement for all people" and is widely viewed as the foundation of modern human rights law?
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Which of the following agreements permits individual petition to an international court?
the European Convention on Human Rights.
Which of the following is NOT likely to explain why a state takes action to protect human rights in another state?
the human rights violations have not reached the scale of genocide.
Why are countries reluctant to impose economic sanctions?
They are costly.
Why are the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) two separate documents?
Because during the Cold War the United States and its allies wanted human rights law focused on political and civil rights while the Soviet Union and its allies wanted human rights law focused on economic, social, and cultural rights.
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