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62 terms

Joints of the Skeletal System

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articulations
functional junctions between bones.
Fibrous Joints
dense connective tissue; many collagenous fibers; bones are close together; 3 types
Syndesmosis
Fibrous joints; bones are bound by long fibers of connective tissue that form an interosseous ligament.
Amphiarthrotic
permit slight movement
Suture
only between bones of the skull; sutural ligament
Sutural ligament
thin layer of dense connective tissue
Synarthrotic
immovable joints
Gomphosis
formed by union of cone-shaped bony process in a bony socket. periodontal ligament
periodontal ligament
surrounds the root and firmly attaches to the jaw with thick bundles of collagenous fibers
Cartilaginous Joints
hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage; two types
Synchondrosis
bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones; many are temporary structures; manubrium and first rib
Symphysis
limited amount of movement; articular surfaces are covered by thin layer of hyaline cartilage and this cartilage is attached to fibrocartilage.
Synovial Joints
more complex structurally; consist of articular cartilage, joint capsule, and synovial membrane
Diarthrotic
free movement
synovial membrane
secrete synovial fluid; inner layer of a joint capsule; consists of a shiny, vascular lining of loose CT; few cells thick
Joint Capsule
tubular; two distinct layers, holds together the bones of synovial joint. outer layer-dense CT
Ligaments
bundles of strong, touch collagenous fibers; reinforce joint capsules
synovial fluid
viscous fluid
menisci
fibrocartilage, located between articular surfaces. ex: knee-crescent shaped
bursae
fluid filled sacs, has inner lining of synovial membrane. contian synovial fluid. between skin and bony prominences
ball and socket joint
bones with globular or egg-shaped head that articulates with cup shaped cavity.
condyloid joint
ovoid condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another bones. variety of movements, no rotation
gliding joints
nearly flat or slightly curved, sliding or twisting
hinge joint
convex surface of one bone fits into concave surface surface of another; flexion and extenstion
pivot joint
cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of bone and fibrous tissue; rotation around central axis
saddle joint
both concave and convex regions, one bone is complementary surface to the other; variety of movements in two planes
flexion
bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and parts come closer together
extension
straightening parts of a joint so the angle between them increases and parts move farther apart
dorsiflexion
bending foot upward
plantar flexion
bending the foot downward
abduction
moving part away from mid line
hyperextension
bending head back beyond the upright position
adduction
moving a part toward the mid line
rotation
moving a part around an axis
circumduction
moving a part so that its end follows a circular path
supination
turning the hand so the palm is upward; anterior
pronation
turning the hand so the palm is downward
eversion
turning the foot so the sole faces laterally
inversion
turning the foot so the sole faces medially
protraction
moving a part forward
retraction
moving a part backward
elevation
raising a part
depression
lowering a part
Shoulder Joint
Synovial jt. ball and socket joint that consists of the rounded head of the humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula
Coracohumeral ligament
composed of broad band of CT that connects coracoid process to greater tubercle of humerus.
Glenohumeral ligaments
three bands of fibers that appear as thickenings in the ventral wall of the joint capsule.
Transverse Humeral ligament
consists of a narrow sheet of CT fibers that runs between the lesser and greater tubercles of the humerus
Glenoid Labrum
composed of fibrocartilage, attached to margin of glenoid cavity and forms a rim.
Elbow joint
complex structure, includes two articulations (hinge joint and gliding joint)
Ulnar collateral ligament
thick band of Dense CT, located in the medial wall of the capsule.
Radial collateral ligament
strengthens the lateral wall of the joint capsule, fibrous band
Hip Joint
ball and socket joint that consists of the head of femur and acetabulum of the coxa.
Iliofemoral ligament
consits of Y-shaped band of very strong fibers that connect the anterior inferior iliac spine of the coxa to the intertrochanteric line of the femur. strongest ligament of the body
Pubofemoral ligament
extends between the superior portion of pubis and the iliofemoral ligament. fibers blend with the fibers of the joint capsule
ischiofemoral ligament
consists of a band of strong fibers that originates on the ischium posterior to acetabulum, blends with fibers of joint capsule
Knee Joint
largest and most complex of synovial joints
patellar ligament
continuation of a tendon from a large muscle group in the thigh. strong, flat band that extends from patella to tibial tuberosity
oblique popliteal ligament
connects the lateral condyle of femur to margin of the head of the tibia.
Arcuate popliteal ligament
appears Y-shaped system of fibers that extends from lateral condyle of femur to head of fibula.
Tibial collateral ligament
broad, flat band of tissue that connects medial condyle of femur to medial condyle of tibia
Fibular collateral ligament
consist of a strong, round cord located between the lateral condyle of the femur and head of fibula
cruciate ligaments
(fibular collateral ligament) help prevent displacement of the articulating surfaces