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Term I: Anatomy Hesi review
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Terms in this set (66)
An organelle that produces energy for the cell is called.
Nucleolus: makes subunits that form ribosomes
Ribosomes: synthesize proteins: a cells "protein factories"
Centrioles: Help organize and move chromosomes during cell reproduction.
The glands in the endocrine system are sometimes called:
The relationship between the heart and the lungs can be described as:
The heart is medial to the lungs
What is the scientific name for the kneecap?
Acromion: the outward end of the spine of the scapula or shoulder blade.
Trochlea:a structure resembling or acting like a pulley, such as the groove at the lower end of the humerus forming part of the elbow joint.
Manubrium: The manubrium of the sternum is the superior part of the sternum.
A person with type A blood has antibodies against:
Answer: B antigen
The term that best describes the position of the elbow with respects to the hand is:
Proximal: Toward the trunk (describes relative position in a limb or other appendage).
Inferior: Towards the bottom of the body.
Posterior: Toward the back (rear) of the body.
Anterior: Towards the front of the body.
The structure that is part of both the reproductive and the urinary system in the male is the:
In male, urethra has urinary and reproductive functions.
Bladder: a sac, usually referring to the urinary bladder.
Ureter: Long tube that carries urine from kidney to bladder
Kidney: Maintains the electrolyte, water, and acid-base balances in the body
The outer portion of the kidney is called the:
Answer: Renal cortex
Renal medulla: the inner portion of the kidney.
Adrenal cortex: Outer portion of adrenal gland that secretes hormones called corticoids.
Adrenal medulla: Inner portion of adrenal gland that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Which of the following muscle types is under voluntary control?
Smooth- striated voluntary
Cardiac: striated Involuntary
The semilunar valves are:
Answer: aortic and pulmonary
a) Valves keep blood flowing through the heart and prevent back flow.
b) Consists of two atrioventricular (AV) and two semilunar (SL) valve.
1. Tricuspid- at the opening of the right atrium into the ventricle.
2. Bicuspid (mitral)- at the opening of the atrium into the ventricle
3. Pulmonary semilunar- at the beginning of the pulmonary artery.
4. Aortic semilunar- at the beginning of the aorta.
There is numerous level of organization in the body. The correct order from simplest to most complex is:
Cell, tissue, organ, system and organism
Which of the following is the muscle that surrounds the lips?
Answer: orbicularis oris
Orbicularis oculi- maxilla and frontal bone (encircles eye)
Buccinators- a flat, thin muscle in the wall of the cheek.
The heart is an example of this level of organization.
Base on your knowledge of the word parts, nephrectomy is most likely the removal of the:
Nervous tissue- there are many specific ones.
The pleural space is located:
between the bilayered serous membrane covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity
When is the body removes CO2, by the respiratory system:
It raises the pH of the blood.
Answer: labored or difficult breathing
Respiratory arrest: is caused by apnea (cessation of breathing)
respiratory rhythm: a regular, oscillating cycle of inspiration and expiration, controlled by neuronal impulses transmitted between the respiratory centers in the brain and the muscles of inspiration in the chest and diaphragm.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND) is a sensation of shortness of breath that awakens the patient, often after 1 or 2 hours of sleep, and is usually relieved in the upright position.
The vermiform appendix is attached to which of the following regions of the large intestine?
Which of the following bones are found in the shoulder girdle?
Red bone marrow manufacturers:
(Red blood cell) RBC's
The pigment that binds to oxygen in the red blood cell is:
The part of the nervous system that consists of all of the spinal nerves and cranial nerves is the:
Answer: Central nervous system.
Central nervous system:the brain and spinal cord
Somatic nervous system:the motor neurons that control the voluntary actions of skeletal muscles
Autonomic nervous system:motor neurons that make up the autonomic nervous system
The hypodermic is also known as:
Answer: Subcutaneous layer.
Epidermis layer:"false" skin; outermost layer of the skin
Dermis: the deeper of the two major layers of the skin, composed of dense fibrous connective tissue interspersed with glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels; sometimes called the true skin
Neurons that conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain are called:
Answer: Afferent Neurons
Sensory neurons transmit impulses to the spinal cord and brain from all parts of the body. Sensory neurons are also called afferent neurons.
Motor neuron: Muscle fibers are stimulated by a nerve fiber
Interneurons: conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons. Interneurons are sometimes called central or connecting neurons.
Efferent Neurons: Motor neurons transmit impulses in the opposite direction—away from the brain and spinal cord. They do not conduct impulses to all parts of the body—only to two kinds of tissue—muscle and glandular epithelial tissue. Motor neurons are called efferent neurons.
The Lymphatic system include:
Answer: Lymph nodes
The lymphatic system is composed of lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, and specialized lymphatic organs such as the tonsils, thymus, and spleen. Note that the thymus functions as an endocrine gland and as a lymphatic gland.
Chemicals that interact at the synapse are called:
Neurotransmitters are chemicals by which neurons communicate. As previously noted, at trillions of synapses in the CNS, presynaptic neurons
Which of the following is not an example of a neuroglia cell?
The membrane that surrounds individual muscle fibers is the:
Perimysium:The sheath of connective tissue enveloping bundles of muscle fibers.Epimysium:a sheath of fibrous elastic tissue surrounding a muscle.
Endomysium: The endomysium, meaning within the muscle, is a wispy layer of areolar connective tissue that ensheaths each individual myocyte (muscle fiber, or muscle cell).
Deep Fascia:Deep fascia is the dense fibrous connective tissue that interpenetrates and surrounds the muscles, bones, nerves and blood vessels of the body.
The photoreceptor cells of the retina are:
Answer: Rods and cones
Rods: are the receptors for night vision
Cones: are the receptors for daytime vision.
The scientific name for the eardrum is the:
Answer: tympanic membrane
The average total volume of the blood in the body is about:
The mineral needed for muscle contractions is:
Calcium and Magnesium. Calcium and magnesium work together to control muscle contraction. Both minerals interact with the proteins actin and myosin -- structural proteins that shorten with each muscle contraction, then lengthen to relax your muscles.
Which of the following proteins is the most abundant?
Fibrinogen: Soluble blood protein that is converted to insoluble fibrin during clotting.
Thrombin: protein important in blood clotting
Complement: Complement is the name used to describe a group of protein enzymes normally present in an inactive state in blood.
Which of the following functions is accomplished by bile?
Emulsification of fats
A low white blood cell count is called:
A reduction in the number of white cells in the blood, typical of various diseases.
Thrombocytopenia:Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which you have a low blood platelet count. Platelets (thrombocytes) are colorless blood cells that help blood clot. Platelets stop bleeding by clumping and forming plugs in blood vessel injuries.
Leukemia: It's cancer of your blood cells caused by a rise in the number of white blood cells in your body. They crowd out the red blood cells and platelets your body needs to be healthy. All those extra white blood cells don't work right, and that causes problems.
Polycythemia: (also known as polycythaemia or polyglobulia) is a disease state in which the hematocrit (the volume percentage of red blood cells in the blood) is elevated.
At the synapse, transmission usually occurs between:
Answer: the presynaptic cell to the postsynaptic cell.
Transmission of signals from one neuron to the next—across the synapse—is an important part of the nerve conduction process. By definition, a synapse is the place where impulses are transmitted from one neuron, called the presynaptic neuron, to another neuron, called the postsynaptic neuron.
The heart chamber that receives blood from lungs is the:
Answer: Left atrium
Left atrium. This chamber receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins of the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle.
An air space within a bone is called is
A cavity or hollow space. It is an air-filled chamber found in some skull bones. It is named for the bones in which they are located
Condyle: A rounded projection. The epicondyle is above the condyle
Foramen: A hole that allows a vessel or a nerve to pass through or between bones.
Fossa: A depression on a bone surface.
The outer layer of the heart wall is called the:
the inner layer of the pericardium that covers the surface of the heart; also called the visceral pericardium
Myocardium: muscle of the heart
Endocardium: thin layer of very smooth tissue lining each chamber of the heart
Septum: a partition separating two chambers, such as that between the nostrils or the chambers of the heart.
Which of the following is not associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system?
Which of the following is a special sense?
The special sense organs are responsible for the special senses of smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium and are grouped into localized areas such as the nasal mucosa and tongue or into such complex organs as the eye and ear.
Movement of solute from a region of high concentration to one of lower concentration is called:
The movement of a dissolved substance from an area of high concentraion to an area of low concentration; the process does not require an input of energy
Osmosis: a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
Phagocytosis: the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans.
Endocytosis: the taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole.
Which of the following is not the function of spleen?
Answer: Absorption of digestive fats
Functions include phagocytosis of bacteria and old RBCs; acts as a blood reservoir
A target tissue responds to a hormone only if it has the appropriate
receptor: site where specific substance can attach
At the lungs
Oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli.
Answer: Increases sodium retention by the kidneys.
hormone that stimulates the kidney to retain sodium ions and water
Proteins are complex molecules that are composed of:
Answer: Amino Acids
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Answer: Is secreted when water intake is very low
hormone produced in the posterior pituitary gland to regulate the balance of water in the body by accelerating the reabsorption of water
Cartilage rings keep the _________ open
The cranial nerve concerned with the sense of smell is the:
The portion of the large intestine that empties into the rectum is the:
Answer: Sigmoid colon
Sigmoid Colon:S-shaped segment of the large intestine that terminates in the rectum.
Anus: distal end or outlet of the rectum.
Transverse Colon: the middle part of the large intestine, passing across the abdomen from right to left below the stomach.
The specific name for the shaft of the long bone is:
- shaft of a long bone
Epiphysis-ends of a long bone
Articular cartilage:cartilage covering the joint ends of bones
Medullary cavities: Hollow area in the diaphysis of a long bone that contains fatty yellow bone marrow. Lined by endosteum. The narrow brim around the cavity is made of spongy bone
Which of the following enzymes is not synthezied by the pancreas?
The pyloric sphincter regulates the flow of the food into the:
When highly acidic chyme enters the duodenum, which substance will neutralize the acidity?
The study of how the body functions is called
The cells involved in breaking down the bone tissue are called:
Osteocyte: a bone cell, formed when an osteoblast becomes embedded in the matrix it has secreted.
A decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular fluid would cause water to:
Answer: Move into the cells
The diaphragm divides the:
thoracic from the abdominal cavity
Mr and Mrs J have returned from a vacation from Caribbean Islands. Mrs J. is very tanned whereas Mr J's skin color is quite pale. The different skin tones reflect different amount of:
Has a pH less than 7
The large soft spot at the junction of to parietal bones and the frontal bone in the infant cranium is the:
Answer: Anterior Fontanel
Urine flows through the organs of the urinary system in the following sequence:
Kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra
Bile is manufactured in the:
The chemical category that includes fats and cholesterol is:
The hardest substance found in a tooth is:
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