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ch 10

proton gradient

a gradient formed by the difference in proton concentrations across a membrane

oxidative phosphorylation

an enzymatic process in cell metabolism that synthesizes ATP from ADP

uncoupling agent


What is the difference between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration? (hint: anaerobic respiration is NOT the same thing as fermentation)


What are the three main stages of aerobic respiration? What molecules do you have at the start and end of each stage? What molecule contains the energy from the original C-C bonds of glucose at the end of each stage?


Describe the general structure of a mitochondrion.


What types or sizes of molecules can easily pass through the outer mitochondrial membrane? What types or sizes of molecules can easily pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane?


Why does the inner mitochondrial membrane have so much more surface area than the outer membrane?


What materials are found in the mitochondrial matrix?


Where do bacteria perform the functions of respiration?


Explain how pyruvate is converted into acetyl CoA. Is any energy generated in this conversion? Do all three carbons in pyruvate get attached to CoA? What happens to the missing carbon? What is CoA anyhow?


The acetyl group from acetyl CoA is covalently attached to oxaloacetate (4 C) to generate what molecule? How many carbons are in that molecule?


What are the end products of the citric acid cycle? How many NADH are generated per pyruvate? How many FADH2? How many CO2?


Where do all those electron carriers go after they're reduced in the citric acid cycle? What happens to those electrons?


Do electrons from NADH and FADH2 get 'dropped off' at the same part of the electron transport chain?


Explain (in general) how H+ get moved from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space. What happens to those H+ after they build up in the intermembrane space?


What is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration?


An uncoupling reagent, dinitrophenol, disrupts the proton gradient in mitochondria by making the membranes permeable to H+. What do you think dinitrophenol does to ATP synthesis? What would happen to a cell exposed to dinitrophenol?


In general, how does ATP synthase work? What does the Fo subunit do? What does the F1 subunit do?


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