324 terms

AP Music Theory

pgs 145-147 from Mr. Spaeth's packet
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Terms in this set (...)

cadence
a progression of chords (usually two) giving an effect of closing a 'sentence' in music
cadential extension
prolonging or delaying cadence with additional material
contour
shape of a melodic line
countermelody
a sequence of notes, perceived as a melody, written to be played simultaneously with a more prominent lead melody. Typically a counter-melody performs a subordinate role, and is heard in a texture consisting of a melody plus accompaniment
introduction
a short preliminary passage in a large movement or work
genre
a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other types of music
concerto
a musical work is a composition usually in three parts or movements, in which (usually) one solo instrument (for instance, a piano or violin) is accompanied by an orchestra
fugue
A contrapuntal piece of music wherein a particular melody is played in a number of voices. At the beginning of the piece, each voice is introduced in turn by playing the melody, after which it consists of a mix of counter-melodies, accompaniment passages, periods of rest, and returns to the main
sonata
A musical composition for one or a few instruments, one of which is frequently a piano, in three or four movements that vary in key and tempo
symphony
An extended piece in three or more movements for symphony orchestra
jazz
A style of music, native to America, characterized by a strong but flexible rhythmic understructure with solo and ensemble improvisations on basic tunes and chord patterns and, more recently, a highly sophisticated harmonic idiom
bridge
a contrasting section which also prepares for the return of the original material section
chorus
A body of singers who perform together as a group
A-A-B-A
Thirty-two-bar form uses four sections, most often eight measures long each (4×8=32), two verses or A sections, a contrasting B section (the bridge or "middle-eight") and a return of the verse in one last A section
rhythm changes
the first four chords of the jazz progression
turnaround
a passage at the end of a section which leads to the next section. This next section is most often the repetition of the previous section or the entire piece or song
twelve-bar blues
the basis of thousands of songs, not only formally identified blues songs. The vast majority of boogie woogie compositions are 12-bar blues, as are many instrumentals
verse
that part of a song following the introduction and preceding the chorus
melodic fragment
a short subset of a longer melody
motive
a short musical idea, a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition
period
two or more phrases in antecedent-consequent relationship, ends in cadence
contrasting period
period in which phrase beginnings are not similar
double period
four phrases in two pairs, cadence at end of second pair is stronger than cadence at the end of the first pair
parallel period
both phrases begin with similar material
phrase
relatively independent musical idea terminated by a cadence
antecedent
"question," first phrase in a period
consequent
"answer," terminal phrase in a period
phrase group
group of phrases seem to belong together without forming period or double period
binary-small forms
movement with two main sections
rounded binary-small forms
A-B-1/2A-almost identical to ternary
ternary-small forms
A-B-A-statement-contrast-return
stanza
two or more sections of a song having similar music and different lyrics
theme
initial or primary melody
augmentation
the lengthening or widening of rhythms, melodies, intervals or chords
diminution
the shortening of rhythms, melodies, intervals or chords
extended version
phrase extended in the up-beat, body, or cadence portions of the phrase
fragmentation
division of a musical idea into segments
internal expansion
phrase extends beyond the expected phrase length
inversion
retains the rhythm and the basic contour of the material, but flips it upside down: where the original moves up, the new contour moves down just as down changes to up
melodic inversion
to render the inversion more palatable or melodic
literal repetition
sequences are repeated, indicated by repeat sign, capo, or segno
octave displacement
taking a melodic line and moving some of the notes into a different octave
retrograde
when a melodic line is performed backwards
rhythmic transformation
multiplication, rotation, permutation (i.e. transposition, inversion, and retrograde), and combinations thereof involving rhythm
sequence
pattern that is repeated immediately in the same voice but that begins on a different pitch class
sequential repetition
transposing a longer sequence to a different scale degree; may be diatonic or intervalically exact
shortened version
abbreviated reiteration of material already presented
transposition
to write or play music in some key other than the original
variation
material is altered during repetition
strophic-vocal forms
A-A'-A''-repetition of one formal section
through-composed-vocal forms
continuous, non-sectional, non-repetitive
authentic cadence
V or vii dim. -> I
imperfect authentic cadence
all ACs that aren't PACs
perfect authentic cadence
V7 -> I (tonic in soprano)
deceptive cadence
V -> anything but I, usually vi
half cadence
ends in V
Phrygian half cadence
iv6 -> V
plagal cadence
IV -> I
diminished seventh chord
diminished triad + diminished seventh, diminished-diminished
dominant seventh chord
major triad + minor seventh, major-minor
half-diminished seventh chord
diminished triad + minor seventh
major seventh chord
major triad + major seventh, major-major
minor seventh chord
minor triad + minor seventh, minor-minor
minor-major seventh
minor triad + major seventh
major triad
root, major third, perfect fifth
augmented triad
fifth is raised 1/2 step from major
diminished triad
third and fifth are lowered by 1/2 step from major
minor triad
third is lowered 1/2 from major
cadential 6/4
precedes the dominant, often at a cadence, embellishes dominant
neighboring or pedal 6/4
third and fifth of a root position triad are embellished by upper neighbor tones, bass is stationary, usually occurs on weak beat
passing 6/4
harmonizes as bass passing tone, usually on unaccented beat and upper voices move by step
deceptive progression
V -> vi, makes you think you're going to a I
dominant
Mixolydian, fifth degree of a scale
harmonic rhythm
rate at which chords change
leading tone
Locrian, seventh degree of scale (major or harmonic or melodic minor scale); a half-step below tonic
mediant
Phrygian, third degree of a scale
modulation
shift of tonal center that takes place within a movement
rate of harmonic change
the rate at which chords change
subdominant
Lydian, fourth degree of a scale
submediant
Aeolian, sixth degree of a scale
subtonic
7-flat, seventh degree of scale if natural minor (a whole step from tonic)
supertonic
Dorian, second degree of a scale
tonic
Ionian, first degree of a scale
nonharmonic tone
tone that is not a member of that chord/key
anticipation
moves by step or leap, to pitch contained in anticipated chord but not in preceded chord, left by same tone, or leap
appoggiatura, incomplete neighbor
accented, approached by ascending leap, and left by descending step
embellishment
melodic decoration, an ornament note
escape tone, Echappee
approached by step, left by leap in opposite direction
neighboring tone, auxiliary/embellishing/neighbor/neighbor note
used to embellish a single tone, which is heard both before and after the neighbor, may be diatonic or chromatic
lower neighbor
neighbor below tone
neighbor group, cambiata, changing notes/tones, double neighbor
combination of two NCTs in succession, the first being an escape tone, the second an appoggiatura
upper neighbor
neighbor above tone
ornament
musical flourishes that are not necessary to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony), but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line
passing tone
used to fill in the space between two other tones, approached and left by step in the same direction
accented passing tone
falls on stronger position than it resolves to
unaccented passing tone
falls on weaker position than it resolves to
pedal point
a compositional device that begins as a chord tone, then becomes an an NCT as the harmonies around it change, and finally ends up as a chord tone when the harmony is one more in agreement with it
retardation
suspension with an upward resolution, left by step up
suspension
holds on to, or suspends, a chord tone after the other parts have moved on to the next chord, left by step down
rearticulated suspension
suspension that is rearticulated on the beat
bass
lower male voice, lowest note
close position
less than an octave between soprano and tenor
doubling
only double root
first inversion
when the third of the chord is the bass
inversion; inversion of chords
any arrangement of chords other than root position chords
open position
an octave or more between soprano and tenor
root
the bottom voice in standard four-voice partwriting, the note for which the chord is named after
root position
root as lowest tone or in the bass
second inversion
chords with the 5th in the bass
soprano
the higher female voice, highest note
contrary motion
voices moving in different directions
cross/false relation
a type of dissonance that sometimes occurs in classical polyphonic music, a chromatic contradiction between two notes sounding simultaneously, (or in close proximity), in two different voices or parts
direct/hidden fifths
results when the outer parts move in the same direction into a P5, with a leap in the soprano
direct/hidden octaves
results when the outer parts move in the same direction into a P8, with a leap in the soprano
oblique motion
one voice stays the same, one moves
parallel motion
two lines moving together in the same direction with the same interval but not necessarily of the same quality
objectionable parallels
perfect fifths and perfect octaves
parallel fifths
two parts that are separated by P5 move to new pitch classes separated by the same interval
parallel octaves
two parts that are separated by P8 move to new pitch classes separated by the same interval
similar motion
both voices move in same direction
unresolved seventh
the seventh of a seventh chord that wants to resolve downward; it is very unsatisfactory and objectionable not to do so
crossed voices-voice crossing
the intersection of melodic lines in a composition, leaving a lower voice on a higher pitch than a higher voice (and vice versa)
arpeggio
notes that outline a chord
consonance
pleasing to the ear, major and more 3rds and 6ths and perfect 5ths and 8ves
dissonance
unpleasant to the ear, all other intervals, except P4, which is only dissonant in the bass
flatted fifth
diminished fifth (dissonant)
lead sheet
an abbreviated musical score, consisting of a melody line with chord names or symbols, and sometimes lyrics
picardy third
suddenly ending a minor composition in a major triad
realization; realization of a figured bass
the act of realizing a figured bass
resolution
a progression from a dissonant tone or harmony to one that is consonant
compound interval
interval greater than P8
interval
the distance from one tone to another, as determined by the two tones' letter names and half-steps spanned
inversion; inversion of an interval
9 minus the number and the opposite of the quality gives u the inversion
numerical names
ex. third, fifth, octave
quality or type
perfect, major, minor, diminished, augmented
tritone
interval that spans 3 whole tones, augmented fourth or diminished fifth
unison
same note
articulation
directions to a performer typically through symbols and icons on a musical score that indicate characteristics of the attack, duration, and decay (or envelope) of a given note
legato
smooth and connected, without breaks between successive tones
pizzicato
played by plucking the strings with the finger instead of using the bow
slur
a sign in musical notation consisting of a curved line drawn over or under a series of notes, indicating that those notes should be played legato
staccato
A style of playing notes in a detached, separated, distinct manner
dynamics
variation and gradation in the volume of musical sound
crescendo
a directive to a performer to smoothly increase the volume of a particular phrase or passage
diminuendo
a directive to a performer to smoothly decrease the volume of a particular phrase or passage
pianissimo
softer than p
piano
moderately soft
mezzoforte
moderately loud
forte
louder than mf
phrasing
the grouping of the notes of a musical line into distinct phrases
improvisation, improvisatory
the spontaneous performance of music without previous preparation or any written notes
tempo
relative rapidity or rate of movement
accelerando
gradually accelerating or getting faster
adagio
a slow tempo marking between largo and andante; a composition written in a slow tempo, frequently the second movement of sonatas and symphonies
allegro
a fast tempo marking between allegretto and vivace; a composition in fast tempo usually the first or last movement of a sonata or a symphony
andante
a moderate tempo marking between largo and moderato, this tempo typically has between 76 and 108 beats per minute
andantino
a moderate tempo marking slightly faster than Andante and slower than moderato
largo
a slow and solemn tempo marking, having between 40 and 60 beats per minute
lento
slow
moderato
a directive to perform the designated passage of a composition in a moderate tempo; moderately, restrained
presto
a directive to perform the indicated passage of a composition very quickly
ritardando
a directive to perform a certain passage of a composition with a ritard the tempo, to gradually delay the tempo
ritenuto
a directive to perform a certain passage of a composition with a slowing of the tempo more suddenly and extremely than a ritardando
rubato
having certain notes arbitrarily lengthened while others afterward are correspondingly shortened, or vice versa
vivace
a directive to perform a certain passage of a composition in a lively or brisk manner
accent
a stress or emphasis given to certain notes
agogic accent
an accent created by duration, rather than loudness or metrical position
dynamic accent
to play an indicated note louder
asymmetrical meter
time signatures with 5 or 7 as the top number
augmentation
statement of a melody in longer note values, often twice as slow as the original
bar line
bar or the lines drawn perpendicularly across the staff to divide it into measures
beat
the regular pulse of music which may be dictated by the rise or fall of the hand or baton of the conductor
beat type
meter in which beat is divided
compound beat type
meter in which each beat is divisible by three rather than two
simple beat type
Meter in which each beat is divisible by two
changing meter, multimeter
the meter changes regularly, from measure to measure, and can be indicated by a double time signature
cross rhythm
the simultaneous use of two or more rhythmic patterns
diminution
the restatement of a melody in which the note values are shortened, usually by half
dot; double dot
note/rest + half of that note/rest
dotted rhythm
rhythms that consist basically of a dotted note and a neighboring note worth one third the duration of the entire duration of the dotted note
duplet
a group of two notes played in the time usually taken to play three
duration
the length of time that a note is sounded
hemiola
a metrical pattern in which two bars in simple triple time (3/2 or 3/4 for example) are articulated as if they were three bars in simple duple time (2/2 or 2/4)
meter
measure of time
duple
rhythmic pattern with the measure being divisible by two
quadruple
metrical pattern with four beats to the measure
triple
metrical pattern with three beats to the measure
note value
duration of a note, or the relationship of the duration of the note to the measure
polyrhythm
the use of several patterns or meters simultaneously
pulse
music's underlying, ongoing beat
rhythm
the subdivision of a space of time into a defined, repeated pattern
swing rhythm
a greater emphasis on solo passages, and a 4/4 tempo with an almost even emphasis on each beat of the measure
syncopation
deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse of a composition by means of a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an off-beat
tempo
the speed of the rhythm of a composition
tie
a curved line drawn over or under the heads of two notes of the same pitch indicating that there should be no break between them but they should be played as a single note
time/meter signature
a symbol placed at the left side of the staff indicating the meter of the composition
triplet
three notes of equal length that are to be performed in the duration of two notes of equal length
accidental
a mark placed before a note which indicates that the previously understood pitch of the note should be altered by one or two half steps
chromatic
chords that contain notes not found in the scale
diatonic
chords that contain notes in the scale
key signature
an unchangeable ordering of sharps or flats indicated at the beginning of a piece that defines the diatonic pitches for that piece
major
a scale step pattern of whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half
minor
a scale pattern of whole-half-whole-whole-half-whole-whole
harmonic minor
the harmonic minor scale raises the 7th scale degree
melodic minor; ascending or descending
the melodic minor scale raises the 6th and 7th scale degrees ascending; the scale is in the natural form descending
natural minor
a scale step pattern of whole-half-whole-whole-half-whole-whole
mode
an ordered series of intervals that, with the key or tonic (first tone), defines that scale's intervals, or steps
dorian
starting on second degree of major, close to minor
lydian
starting on fourth degree of major, close to major
mixolydian
starting on fifth degree of major, close to major
phrygian
starts on third degree of major, close to minor
modality: major-minor modality
what mode the piece is in, ionian/major and aeolian/minor
octatonic, diminished scale
minor second, minor third, major third, aug fourth, perfect fifth, major sixth, minor seventh
parallel key; parallel major or minor
keys that share the same tonic
pentatonic
C-D-E-G-A-C, C-Eb-F-G-Bb-C
relative key; relative major or minor
same key signatures
tonal
of or relating to the tonic
tonality
the system of seven tones built on a tonic key
whole-tone
a 6-note scale, of which there are two, made up entirely of whole-step intervals, or the harmonies derived from it, C-D-E-F#-G#-A#
melismatic
singing one word or syllable over several notes
syllabic
music sung with one note per word or syllable
alberti bass
an accompaniment derived from broken chords
canon
melody sung against itself in imitation
canonic
also called "strict imitation", the imitation of one part by another, note for note and interval for interval
chordal accompaniment
the underlying harmonic support for a melody
contrapuntal
pertaining to counterpoint
counterpoint imitation
the linear consideration of two melodic lines sounding together
counterpoint imitative polyphony
lines sounding together using the same or simlar melodies, with the second voice entering soon after the first
counterpoint nominative polyphony
two melodies are essentially different, but are harmonious when performed contrapuntually
countermelody
second melody, distinct but clearly subordinate to the first
fugal imitation
imitation of the subject which enters at a different pitch level, usually the fourth or fifth
heterophony, heterophonic
simultaneous performance of modified versions of
the same melody
homophony, homophonic
melody supported by accompaniment
chordal homophony
the same, or almost the same rhythm is applied to all voices of the musical texture, like a hymn
melody and accompaniment
melody is clearly prominant; supported by chordal accompaniment
instrumentation
the particular combination of musical instruments employed in a composition
brass
tubular wind instruments usually made of brass
percussion
any instrument that makes its sound by being struck
rhythm section
unpitched instruments which produce their sound by being struck
strings
instruments that make their sound from strings which
are bowed or plucked
timbre
the quality of a sound, "tone color"
woodwinds
a musical instrument which produces sound when the player blows air against an edge of, or opening in, the instrument, causing the air to vibrate within a resonator
melody
the tune
monophony, monophonic
a single melody line with no other support
ostinato
a melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout an entire composition or some portion of a composition
polyphony, polyphonic
two or more melodies combined
register
part of the range of an instrument or voice that is different from other parts
tessitura
the general range of a composition in relation to the performer's range
walking bass
a bass line that moves steadily in a rhythm contrasting to that of the upper parts
coda
a closing section of a composition, an added ending
codetta
a passage within a composition of sonata form which resembles a coda, but occurs at the end of the exposition rather than at the end of the composition--
in a fugue, it is the linking passage between the entries of the subject or theme
elision-phrase elision
connection of two phrases so that the cadence of one overlaps, or serves as the beginning of another phrase
fragment-fragmented motive
division of a succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition
conjunct
moves principally in stepwise motion
disjunct
moves by leaps and skips rather than in steps
extension
set of musical notes that lie outside the standard range or tessitura
motivic transformation
same as thematic transformation, except that motives are shorter than themes-"Unity within variety"
truncation
the shortening of a phrase by leaving off any amount of the end of the phrase
refrain
the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the "chorus" of a song
simple binary
divided into two sections, which we'll call "a" and "b". The "a" section begins in I (the tonic) and usually moves to V (dominant) in major or III (mediant) in minor. This sets up the "b" section, which begins where the "a" section left off and brings the music back to the tonic. The "a" and "b" sections usually contain different musical material and themes. Both sections are also repeated
solo-soli
a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer
thematic transformation
a technique of where a leitmotif, or theme, is developed by changing the theme by using Permutation (Transposition or Modulation, Inversion, and Retrograde), Augmentation, Diminution, and Fragmentation
conclusive cadence
a cadence ending with the tonic triad-the choice of melodic pitch, penultimate chord, and the metric placement of the tonic triad are three among many factors that determine the relative strength of a conclusive cadence
inconclusive cadence
a cadence ending with a chord other than the tonic triad-the inconclusive cadences are the half ( -V) and the deceptive (V-vi, or, more generally, V followed by some chord other than the expected I)
functions
the natural action or intended purpose of a chord or note in a specific context
tonic function
a stable chord, in which chords of dominant function resolve and which is able to complete harmonic motion
dominant function
the role of creating instability that requires the tonic for resolution
predominant function
chords that precede a dominant function in a cadential sequence
circle of fifths
shows the relationships among the twelve tones of the chromatic scale, their corresponding key signatures, and the associated major and minor keys
common tone modulation
uses a sustained or repeated pitch from the old key as a bridge between it and the new key
phrase modulation
a modulation in which one phrase ends with a cadence in the original key, and begins the next phrase in the destination key without any transition material linking the two keys
pivot chord modulation
moves from the original key to the destination key (usually a closely related key) by way of a chord both keys share
neighboring chord
chords which are next to one another in scale degree ranking; thus, their notes are separated by a step or half step
realization of a four-part Roman numeral progression
writing four part voices, following traditional eighteenth-century voice leading procedures which continue logically from the spacing of the first chord
retrogression
harmonic movement of the V to the IV chord; unacceptable in classical part-writing
secondary dominant
a dominant-like function of a chromatically altered chord built on a scale degree other than the 5th of the prevailing key
secondary leading tone chord-secondary seventh
a secondary chord but rather than being a dominant it is a leading-tone seventh chord or triad, which is similar in function to dominant chords
tonicization
the treatment of a pitch other than the overall tonic as a temporary tonic in a composition
arpeggiating 6/4
a 6/4 created by arpeggiation of the triad in the bass
preparation
the holding over of a note from one chord into the next chord, where it forms a temporary discord, until resolved in the chord that follows; the anticipation of a discordant note in the preceding concord, so that the ear is prepared for the shock
suspension chain
the resolution of one suspension serving as a preparation for another suspension
alto
the second highest of the four parts of a mixed vocal chorus, or the voices or persons singing this part
tenor
the adult male voice intermediate between the bass and the alto or countertenor
third inversion
when the seventh of the seventh chord is in the bass
common tone
a pitch class that is a member of, or common to, a musical scale and a transposition of that scale, as in modulation
overlapping voices
one voice crosses above or below the previous note of another voice
parallel intervals
the movement in two or more parts of the same intervals in the same direction
tendency tone
a tone that is harmonically or melodically unstable and tends naturally to resolve itself either upward or downward
unresolved leading tone
when the leading tone in an outer voice is unresolved or resolved incorrectly
voice exchange
a contrapuntal harmonic feature in which the bass and treble lines 'exchange' notes-usually, this is a middleground feature prolonging a chord; as, for example, when the bass moves from the root to the third of the chord whilst the treble moves from the third to the root
common practice style
uses conventionalized sequences of chords, such as I-IV-V-I-, obeys specific contrapuntal norms, such as the avoidance of parallel fifths and octaves
figured bass
a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords, and nonchord tones, in relation to a bass note
half step-semitone
the smallest musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music, and it is considered the most dissonant when sounded harmonically
whole step-whole tone
major second, two half-steps
antiphonal
a performance style in which an ensemble is divided into two or more groups, performing alternately as separate groups and in unison
arco
directive for a musician to play a stringed instrument with a bow as opposed to plucked or pizzicato
marcato
marked, accented, emphatic, stressed
tenuto
a directive to perform a certain note or chord of a composition in a sustained manner for longer than its full duration
call and response
a form of "spontaneous verbal and non-verbal interaction between speaker and listener in which all of the statements ('calls') are punctuated by expressions ('responses') from the listener
mezzo piano-mp
moderately soft
fortissimo-ff
very loud
grave
very slow and solemn
metric accent
the phenomena which occurs when the first beat is noticeably a stronger beat
anacrusis-pickup-upbeat
a note or series of notes that comes before the first complete measure of a composition; an introductory (and optional) measure that does not hold the number of beats expressed by the time signature
irregular meter
the upper number being 5, 7, or some larger number other than 9 or 12
modality
the quality or state of being in a mode
scale degrees
names for the different degrees of the scale
tetrachord
a series of four tones filling in the interval of a perfect fourth
whole-tone scale
all whole steps-C-D-E-F#-G#-A#-C
lyrics
a set of words that make up a song
counterpoint
the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm and are harmonically interdependent
chordal texture-homorhythmic
a texture where there is a sameness of rhythm in all parts
melody with accompaniment
a vocal or instrumental part that supports another, often solo, part
continuo
an independent bass line, usually realized on a keyboard instrument, in which numerals written underneath the notes indicate the kinds of harmony to be played
obbligato
a musical line that is not to be omitted in performance
tutti
Used chiefly as a direction to indicate that all performers are to take part
aria
an elaborate accompanied song for solo voice from a cantata, opera, or oratorio
art song
a lyric song intended to be sung in recital, usually accompanied by a piano
interlude
a short piece inserted between the parts of a longer composition
opera
a theatrical presentation in which a dramatic performance is set to music
prelude
a piece or movement that serves as an introduction to another section or composition and establishes the key, such as one that precedes a fugue, opens a suite, or precedes a church service
postlude
a final or concluding piece or movement
song
a brief composition written or adapted for singing
string quartet
an ensemble of four musicians playing stringed instruments, usually two violins, a viola, and a cello