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Sodium - function
Fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, maintains muscle irritability, regulates cell membrane permeability and nerve impulse transmission
Sodium - deficiency
Rare, except with chronic diarrhea or vomiting and certain renal disorders; nausea, dizziness, muscle cramps, apathy
Potassium - function
Fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, nerve impulse transmission, catalyst for many metabolic reactions, involved in skeletal and cardiac muscle activity
Chloride - function
Fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, component of hydrochloric acid in stomach
Chloride - Deficiency
Rare, may occur secondary to chronic diarrhea or vomiting and certain renal disorders: muscle cramps, anorexia, apathy
Calcium - Function
Bone and teeth formation and maintenance, blood clotting,
nerve transmission, muscle contraction and relaxation,
cell membrane permeability, blood pressure
Calcium - toxicity
Constipation, increased risk of renal stone formation, impaired absorption of iron and other minerals
Phosphorus - function
Bone and teeth formation and maintenance, acid-base
balance, energy metabolism, cell membrane structure,
regulation of hormone and coenzyme activity
Magnesium - function
Bone formation, nerve transmission, smooth muscle
relaxation, protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism,
Magnesium - Deficiency
Weakness, confusion; growth failure in children
Severe deficiency: convulsions, hallucinations, tetany
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