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18 terms

Electrolytes in nutrition

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Sodium - function
Fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, maintains muscle irritability, regulates cell membrane permeability and nerve impulse transmission
Sodium - deficiency
Rare, except with chronic diarrhea or vomiting and certain renal disorders; nausea, dizziness, muscle cramps, apathy
Sodium - toxicity
Hypertension, edema
Potassium - function
Fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, nerve impulse transmission, catalyst for many metabolic reactions, involved in skeletal and cardiac muscle activity
Potassium - deficiency
Muscular weakness, paralysis, anorexia, confusion (occurs with
dehydration)
Potassium - toxicity
Toxicity (from supplements/drugs) Muscular weakness, vomiting
Chloride - function
Fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, component of hydrochloric acid in stomach
Chloride - Deficiency
Rare, may occur secondary to chronic diarrhea or vomiting and certain renal disorders: muscle cramps, anorexia, apathy
Chloride - Toxicity
Normally harmless; can cause vomiting
Calcium - Function
Bone and teeth formation and maintenance, blood clotting,
nerve transmission, muscle contraction and relaxation,
cell membrane permeability, blood pressure
Calcium - Deficiency
Children: impaired growth
Adults: osteoporosis
Calcium - toxicity
Constipation, increased risk of renal stone formation, impaired absorption of iron and other minerals
Phosphorus - function
Bone and teeth formation and maintenance, acid-base
balance, energy metabolism, cell membrane structure,
regulation of hormone and coenzyme activity
Phosphorus - deficiency
Deficiency
Unknown
Phosphorus - toxicity
Toxicity
Low blood calcium
Magnesium - function
Bone formation, nerve transmission, smooth muscle
relaxation, protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism,
enzyme activity
Magnesium - Deficiency
Weakness, confusion; growth failure in children
Severe deficiency: convulsions, hallucinations, tetany
Magnesium - toxicity
No toxicity demonstrated from food Supplemental Mg can cause
diarrhea, nausea, and cramping. Excessive Mg from magnesium in Epsom salts causes diarrhea.