51 terms

AP Euro - Unit 1C: Reformation and Religious Wars

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Anticlericalism
Opposition to the power of churches or clergy in politics. In some countries, for example, France, this opposition has focused on the role of the Catholic Church in politics.
Simony
The selling or buying of a position in a Christian church.
Nepotism
Favoritism shown to family or friends by those in power, at this time within the Catholic Church rather than base in merit.
95 Theses
Propositions for debate concerned with the question of indulgences, written (in Latin) and possibly posted by Martin Luther on the door of the Schlosskirche (Castle Church), Wittenberg, on October 31, 1517. This event came to be considered the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
John Tetzel (1465-1519)
-Dominican Friar who was hired to sell indulgences
-Was very successful in his selling
-Made the Catholic Church lots of money with evincing speech
Martin Luther
Luther was ordained to the priesthood in 1507. He came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church; in particular, he disputed the view on indulgences. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517. His refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Protestant Reformation
A major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Its religious aspects were supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power and control at the expense of the Church. (Key Figure: Martin Luther)
Indulgence
A document issued by the Catholic Church lessening penance or time in purgatory, widely believed to bring forgiveness of all sins. (Key Figure: John Tetzel)
Protestant
The name originally given to followers of Martin Luther, which came to mean all non-Catholic Western Christian groups.
Calvinists
Doctrine was similar to that of Lutherans' except Calvinists also believed in predestination and the insignificance of humanity.
The Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)
Calvin's formulation of Christian doctrine, which became a systematic theology for Protestantism.
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Anabaptists
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization. Despised by most Protestant branches.
Predestination
The teaching that God has determined the salvation or damnation of individuals based on his will and purpose, not on their merit or works. (Key Figure: John Calvin)
Holy Office
The official Roman Catholic agency founded in 1542 to combat international doctrinal heresy
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534, whose goal was the spread of the Roman Catholic faith and a key instrument of the Catholic Reformation (or Counter Reformation).
French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
Conflict between Huguenots and Catholics in France which also overlapped with political and economic competition, leading to a series of wars, culminating in the ascension of Henry IV of Bourbon to the throne.
Huguenots
French Calvinists
Politiques
Catholic and Protestant moderates who held that only a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse. (Key Figure: Catherine De' Medici; Key Event: French Religious Wars)
Catherine de Medici (1519-1589)
An Italian noblewoman who was queen of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II. As the mother of kings Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III, she had extensive, if at times varying, influence in the political life of France. From 1560 to 1563, she ruled France as regent for her son Charles IX, King of France. Ruled as a ruthless politique; her policie may be seen as desperate measures to keep the Valois monarchy on the throne at all costs, and her patronage of the arts as an attempt to glorify a monarchy whose prestige was in steep decline
War of the Three Henrys
This was the last of the wars that occurred over the religious differences in France, between the Catholics (Henry III of France and Henry of Guise) and Protestants (Henry IV of Bourbon).
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.
Edict of Nantes
A document issued by Henry IV of France in 1598, granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to Calvinists, which helped restore peace in France.
Union of Utrecht (1581)
The alliance of 7 northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation)
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Baroque Art
Art that originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic Reformation, characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, spirit.
Roman Inquisition (1542)
A Catholic religious committee/court that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution.
Spanish Inquisition
An extension of the Papal Inquisition, set up in 15th century Spain, to investigate and punish converted Jews and Muslims thought to be insincere. Heavily utilized during the Catholic Reformation
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
1. Reformed Catholic Church discipline and reaffirmed church doctrine in response to the Protestant Reformation.
2. Preserved the papacy as the center of Christianity
3. Confirmed all seven existing sacraments
4. Reaffirmed Latin as the language of worship
5. Forbade clerical marriage
Gustavus Adolphus
(1594-1632) Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles.
St. Teresa of Avila
Carmelite nun who believed nuns should return to a simple life of poverty and humility.
Ursulines
A nun of an order founded by St. Angela Merici (1470-1540) at Brescia in 1535 for nursing the sick and teaching girls.
30 Years War (1618-1648)
The final war between Catholics and Protestants; lasted for a long time because (1) all countries had lots of resources coming in from their colonies and (2) both sides were convinced that this was the last chance to defeat the other.

About 10 million people died, most in the HRE/Germany; Germans would later try and figure out how to keep their country from becoming a battleground, which would lead to German unification and nationalism .

Ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; helped spur secular politics.
Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)
Calvinist Bohemians defenestrated the representatives of Catholic King Matthias and installed Calvinist Frederick V as king. Ferdinand II became Holy Roman Emperor and defeated the Bohemians at the Battle of While Mountain in 1620. Protestant land was given away, and the Spanish consolidated power along the Rhine River.
Danish Phase (1625-1629)
This is the second phase of the Thirty Years War. The king of Denmark, Christian IV, invaded Germany in an attempt to help his fellow Protestants against the Catholics, but also to try and get control over more territory and gain more power. It would see Denmark lose and no longer be a major power in the Baltic region.
Swedish Phase (1630-1635)
Catholic regent of France Cardinal Richelieu offered subsidies to encourage Lutheran Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus to enter the war and check Hapsburg power. Decisive victories over Hapsburg forces, Adolphus and Wallenstein dead. Protestant states of Germany made peace with the emperor.
French Phase (1635-1648)
This phase was prompted by Richelieu's concerned that the Habsburgs would rebound after the death of the status Adolphus. Richelieu declared war on Spain and sent military as well as financial assistance. Finally, in October 1648 peace was achieved.
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Document in which Holy Roman Emperor Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire. The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects. ("He who is the ruler is the religion.")
Peasant Revolt of 1524
Bands of angry peasants that went about the country side raiding monasteries, pillaging, and burning feeling that they could defy all injustices and still go to heaven with Luther's teachings. Princes' armies with Luther's support crushed these revolts in Germany and over 100,000 were killed. Because of this, Luther seriously began to questions his efforts if they produced so much death. This was the greatest German peasant rebellion ever.
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII ruled England from 1509-1547 and remains one of that country's most famous and controversial kings. Henry's hearty appetites and fickle passions are legendary, and his demand for a male heir led him to marry six different women. (Two of those wives, Anne Boleyn and Katharine Howard, were executed on his order.) Henry's divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, led the king to split with the Catholic Church and found his own church, the Church of England, which in turn set the stage for the English Reformation and for religious battles which lasted for centuries.
Catherine of Aragon
1st wife of Henry VIII. Mother of Mary I. Henry's desire for a divorce from her precipitated England's break with Rome.
Anne Boleyn
Henry VIII mistress during the time of the English Reformation, she gave birth to Elizabeth, future queen of England. One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her.
Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VIII for his unwillingness to recognize publicly his king as Supreme Head of the church and clergy of England.
Utopia (1516) by Thomas More
"A little, true book, both beneficial and enjoyable, about how things should be in the new island Utopia") is a work of fiction and socio-political satire by Thomas More (1478-1535), written in Latin and published in 1516. The book is a frame narrative primarily depicting a fictional island society and its religious, social, and political customs. Many aspects of More's description of Utopia are reminiscent of life in monasteries.
English Reformation (Henry VIII)
A series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church, beginning with Henry VIII's desire for an annulment to his marriage. These events were associated with the wider process of the European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement that affected the practice of Christianity across western and central Europe during this period. Many factors contributed to the process: the decline of feudalism and the rise of nationalism, the rise of the common law, the invention of the printing press and increased circulation of the Bible, and the transmission of new knowledge and ideas among scholars, the upper and middle classes and readers in general.
Act of Supremacy (1534)
The King was the only supreme head of the Church of England. They could control doctrine, appointments, and discipline.
Edward VI (1547-1553)
Nine-year old boy king of England. England became more Protestant during his reign. Died at the age of 15.
Mary Tudor (Mary I)
Catholic Queen, daughter of Catherine of Aragon, married Philip II of Spain, repealed Protestant statutes of Edward. Nicknamed Bloody Mary for her mass executions of English protestants.
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
Protestant ruler of England who helped stabilize religious tensions by subordinating theological issues to political considerations.
Spanish Armada (1588)
Spanish fleet defeated in the English Channel in 1588. The defeat of the Armada marked the beginning of the decline of the Spanish Empire.
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