31 terms

AP Euro - Unit 1D: Exploration and Conquest (1450-1650)

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Age of Exploration and Discovery
1400-1600, Europeans wanted greater access to spices and other products of Asia, wanted to find sea routes to Asia since land routes were controlled by the Ottoman Empire, improvements in navigational technology made long sea voyages possible, compass, astrolabe, cartography, lateen sail.
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
Genoese explorer who stumbled upon the West Indies in 1492 while in search of a new water route to Asia (as sponsored by Spain's Isabella and Ferdinand). Columbus made three subsequent voyages across the Atlantic and briefly served as a colonial administrator on the island of Hispaniola, present day Haiti.
Caravel Ship
A small, maneuverable, three-mast sailing ship developed by the Portuguese in the 15th c. that gave the Portuguese a distinct advantage in exploration and trade.
Conquistador
Spanish for "conqueror"; Spanish soldier who participated in conquest of indigenous peoples of Latin America.
Gold, God, Glory
As reasons for exploration, to get rich, establish missions, and gain fame back home.
Missionaries
A person sent on a religious mission, especially one sent to promote Christianity in a foreign country. Jesuits would play a strong role in the process, along with Dominican Friars.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
An agreement between Portugal and Spain which declared that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)
Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa.
Aztec Empire
A large and complex Native American civilization in modern Mexico and Central America that possessed advanced mathematical, astronomical, and engineering technology.
Inca Empire
The vast and sophisticated Peruvian empire centered at the capital city of Cuzco that was at its peak from 1438 until 1532.
Viceroyalities
The name for the four administrative units of Spanish possessions in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata.
Encomienda System
A system whereby the Spanish crown granted the conquerors the right to forcibly employ groups of Indians; it was a disguised form of slavery.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Smallpox
A highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, weakness, and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs; responsible for killing Native Americans with the rise of European exploration and the Columbian Exchange.
Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521)
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
Potosi Silver Mine
A silver mine in the interior of South America; great silver mountain that would bring Spanish wealth and help lead the the first universal currency (silver Spanish coinage).
Trianglular Trade
A pattern of trade that connected Europe, Africa, Asia, and the American continents.
Atlantic Slave Trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the Middle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
Plantation Economies
Economic system stretching between the Chesapeake Bay and Brazil that produced crops, especially sugar, cotton, and tobacco, using slave labor on large estates.
Slave Labor
Labor that is coerced and inadequately rewarded, or the people who perform such labor.
Bartolome de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor.
Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512)
He was the Florentine navigator that discovered the coast of modern-day Venezuela. In a letter titled Mundus Novus (The New World), he described America as a continent separate from Asia. In recognition of Amerigo's bold claim, the continent was named for him.
Hernan Cortes (1485-1547)
Spanish Conquistador who defeated the Aztec Empire and claimed Mexico for Spain.
Bank of Amsterdam (1609)
First bank to not only received deposits of gold and silver and exchanged foreign currencies, it made loans.
double-entry bookkeeping
Bookkeepers record all transactions in two places so they can check one list of transactions against the other for accuracy. Revolutionized economic practices in the 1600s.
Market Economies
Individuals make their own decisions about what to produce, how to produce it, and for whom to produce it.
Bank of England (1694)
Unlike the French bank, endured; enabled the government to raise money at low interest for foreign wars; by the 1740s, the government could borrow more than four times what it could in the 1690s.
Price Revolution
The period in European history during the 1500s when inflation rose rapidly due to an influx of gold and silver within the markets.
Dutch East India Company
A company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. Richer and more powerful than England's company, they drove out the English and Established dominance over the region. It ended up going bankrupt and being bought out by the British
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Merchant Class
A rise of wealthy merchants and tradesmen who helped spur the development of a more independent middle class within European society.
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