36 terms

AP Euro - Unit 2B: Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment (1540-1789)

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Witchcraft
Many people (mostly women) were accused of this and burned at the stake in medieval and early modern Europe.
Alchemy
Medieval chemical philosophy based on changing metal into gold; a seemingly magical power or process of transmutation.
Astrology
The study of the movements and relative positions of celestial bodies interpreted as having an influence on human affairs and the natural world.
Scientific Revolution
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
Natural Philosophy
An early modern term for the study of the nature of the universe, its purpose, and how it functioned; it encompassed what we would call "science" today.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
1. Polish clergyman and astronomer who wrote "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres"
2. Helped launch the Scientific Revolution by challenging the widespread belief in the geocentric theory that the earth is the center of the universe
3. Offered a new heliocentric universe in which the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
Copernican Hypothesis
The idea that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe.
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
He established himself as Europe's leading astronomer with his detailed observations of the new star of 1572. Under the patronage of the king of Denmark, Brahe built the most sophisticated observatory of his day. When the king died, he acquired a new patron in the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II, and built a new observatory in Prague. He pledged to create new and improved tables of planetary motions, dubbed the Rudolphine Tables. For twenty years, he complied much more complete and accurate data than ever before. However, his limited understanding of mathematics and his sudden death in 1601 prevented him from making much sense out of his mass of data. He believed that all the planets except the earth revolved around the sun and that the entire group of sun and planets revolved in turn around the earth-moon system.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
1. Italian scientist who contributed to the scientific method by conducting controlled experiments
2. Major accomplishments included using the telescope for astronomical observation, formulating laws of motion, and popularizing the new scientific ideas
3. Condemned by the Inquisition for publicly advocating Copernicus's heliocentric theory
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion.
Law of Inertia
A law formulated by Galileo that states that motion, not rest, is the natural state of an object, and that an object continues in motion forever unless stopped by some external force.
Law of Universal Gravitation
Newton's law that all objects are attracted to one another and that the force of attraction is proportional to the object's quantity of matter and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
1. English politician and writer
2. Formalized the empirical method into a general theory of inductive reasoning known as empiricism
Empiricism
A theory of inductive reasoning that calls for acquiring evidence through observation and experimentation rather than reason and speculation.
Cartesian Dualism
Descartes's view that all of reality could ultimately be reduced to mind and matter. "I think therefore I am." Essentially, if you can doubt you're own existence, the doubt itself proves you exist.
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
1. French philosopher and mathematician
2. Used deductive reasoning from self-evident principles to reach scientific laws
William Harvey (1578-1657)
He discovered the circulation of blood through veins and arteries in 1628, and he was the first to explain that the heart worked like a pump. He also explained the function of its muscles and valves.
Andreas Vasalius (1514-1564)
A 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy.
Enlightenment
The influential intellectual and cultural movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries that introduced a new worldview based on the use of reason, the scientific method, and progress.
Rationalism
A secular, critical way of thinking in which nothing was to be accepted on faith, and everything was to be submitted to reason.
Sensationalism
the idea that all human ideas and thoughts are produced as a result of sensory impressions
Philosophes
A group of French intellectuals who proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their fellow creatures in the Age of Enlightenment.
Deism
A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God, but that God isn't involved in people's lives or in revealing truths to prophets.
Salon
Regular social gathering held by talented and rich Parisians in their homes, where philosophes and their followers met to discuss literature, science, and philosophy.
Rococo Art
A popular style in Europe in the eighteenth century (1700s), known for its soft pastels, ornate interiors, sentimental portraits, and starry-eyed lovers protected by hovering cupids.
Enlightened Absolutism
Term coined by historians to describe the rule of eighteenth-century monarchs who, without renouncing their own absolute authority, adopted Enlightenment ideals of rationalism, progress, and tolerance.
Examples of Enlightened Absolutists (or Despots)
Prussia: Frederick the Great (r. 1740-1786)
Russia: Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796)
Austria: Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780)
Cameralism
View that monarchy was the best form of government, that all elements of society should serve the monarch, and that, in turn, the state should use its resources and authority to increase the public good.
Royal Society of London
Established by Charles II in 1662; purpose to help the sciences.
Academy of the Sciences
This French institute of scientific inquiry was founded in 1666 by Louis XIV. France's statesmen exerted control over the academy and sought to share in the rewards of any discoveries its members made.
Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
Editor of the Encyclopedia, 28 volume set of collected knowledge of the era, which applied principles of the Scientific Revolution to society and human institutions; patronized by Catherine the Great of Russia when censored in France.
Voltaire (1694-1778)
1. French philosophe and voluminous author of essays and letters
2. Championed the enlightened principles of reason, progress, toleration, and individual liberty
3. Opposed superstition, intolerance, and ignorance
4. Criticized organized religion for perpetuating superstition and intolerance
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
1. Enlightened thinker best known for writing "The Social Contract" and "Emile"
2. Believed that since "law is the expression of the general will," the state is based on a social contract
3. Emphasized the education of the whole person for citizenship
4. Rejected excessive rationalism and stressed emotions, thus anticipating the romantic movement
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
1. English political philosopher who wrote "Leviathan"
2. Viewed human beings as naturally self-centered and prone to violence
3. Feared the dangers of anarchy more than the dangers of tyranny
4. Argued that monarchs have absolute and unlimited political authority
John Locke (1632-1704)
1. English philosopher who wrote "The Second Treatise of Government"
2. Viewed humans as basically rational beings who learn from experience
3. Formulated the theory of natural rights, arguing that people are born with basic rights to "life, liberty, and property"
4. Insisted that governments are formed to protect natural rights
5. Stated that the governed have a right to rebel against rulers who violate natural rights
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
Wrote On Crimes and Punishments with basic laws of justice based on reason, Including equality before the law; opposed death penalty, influenced Enlightened Despots
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