AP Gov ch-14 Vocab
Terms in this set (47)
a committee formed to determine the viability of one's candidacy for office; activities may include polling, travel, and other communications relevant to the purpose
efforts by political parties, interest groups, and the candidate's staff to maximize voter turnout among supporters
early attempts to raise money, line up campaign consultants, generate media attention, and get commitments for support even before candidates announce they are running
the tendency of one party to be seen as more competent in a specific policy area
the widely held public perception that a candidate is gaining electoral strength
the leading candidate and expected winner of a nomination or an election
an election by which voters choose convention delegates committed to voting for a certain candidate
citizens' involvement in groups and their relationships to their communities and families
investigation of an opponent's background for the purpose of exploiting weaknesses and undermining credibility
issue advocacy ad (527)
Ads paid for by soft money , and thus not regulated , that promote certain issue positions but do not endorse specific candidates
government matching funds
money given by the federal government to qualified presidential candidates in the primary and general election campaigns
campaign advertising that emphasizes the negative characteristics of opponents rather than one's own strengths
the approximately one-third of the electorate who are undecided at the start of a campaign
a type of independent political action committee which may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates.
Buckley v. Valeo
A case in which the Supreme Court of the United States upheld federal limits on campaign contributions and ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of constitutionally protected free speech. The court also stated candidates can give unlimited amounts of money to their own campaigns.
Citizens United v. FEC
A 2010 decision by the United States Supreme Court holding that independent expenditures are free speech protected by the 1st Amendment and so cannot be limited by federal law. Leads to creation of SuperPACs & massive rise in amount of third party electioneering (Citizens for a Better Tomorrow, Tomorrow)
local gathering of party members to choose convention delegates
a party's efforts to inform potential voters about issues and candidates and to persuade them to vote
issues on which the parties differ in their perspectives and proposed solutions
a controversial issue that one party uses to split the voters in the other party
the number of votes cast for a candidate who receives more than any other but does not receive an absolute majority.
issues on which most voters and candidates share the same position
citizens' feelings of effectiveness in political affairs
Motor Voter Act
legislation allowing citizens to register to vote at the same time they apply for a driver's license or other state benefit
The incumbent often has more name recognition because of their previous work in the office they occupy.
Incumbents have easier access to campaign finance and government resources that can be indirectly used to boost a campaign.
In general, incumbents have structural advantages over challengers during elections.
straight ticket voting
is the practice of voting for every candidate that a political party has on a general election ballot.
a voter in an election votes for candidates from different political parties when multiple offices are being decided by a single election
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002
banned soft money contributions to national political parties from corporations and unions; independent expenditures by corporations, labor unions, trade associations, and nonprofit organizations are sharply restricted
basing voting decisions on well-informed opinions and consideration of the future consequences of a given vote
basing voting decisions on reactions to past performance; approving the status quo or a desire for change
the process of scheduling presidential primaries early in the primary season
is a committee , is an organization that pools campaign contributions from members and donates those funds to campaigns
campaign funds donated directly to candidates; amounts are limited by federal election laws
unregulated campaign contributions by individuals, groups, or parties that promote general election activities but do not directly support individual candidates
an intermediary body that elects the president
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a policy designed to reduce the barriers to voting for those suffering discrimination.
15 th Amendment
Gave African American Men allowed to vote.
19 th amendment
Gave women the right to vote
Amendment that created a 2 term limit on presidents.
No poll tax
(1) Succession of VP if president dies or become incapable to do his job.(2) if there is no VP, president must appoint one, and congress must approve
lowered the voting age to 18
a time early in a new president's administration characterized by optimistic approval by the public
political money where the donors of the money do not have to be disclosed
a person whom a member of Congress has been elected to represent