Firefighter 1 Final Exam Study Guide
Terms in this set (246)
ICS Command Staff
Incident Commander, Public Information Officer, Safety, Liaison
Speaks to the media for the IC
The first IC on scene.
The first person on scene.
Responsible for obtaining necessary resources.
Father of the fire service in the U.S.
Required after the Iroquois Theatre fire.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
Killed 146 employees when a fire burned on the eighth floor.
MGM Grand Hotel & Casino
85 occupants killed when a fire raged through the casino.
Span of Control
The amount of people one person can supervise.
Cancer is the leading cause of firefighter deaths.
The State of Florida is an OSHA approved state.
The person responsible when an emergency vehicle is involved in an accident.
ANSI Level II Vest
Required to be worn by responders when working on a roadway.
Hot, Warm, Cold
Haz Mat zones.
Public Safety Answering Point
Public Alert Systems
Radio Fire Alarm Box, Wired Telegraph, Telephone Alarm Box, Radio
Fire service radio communication systems.
Firefighters distress call.
Personnel Accountability Report
Incipient, Growth, Fully Developed, Decay
Heat, Oxygen, Fuel, Chemical Chain Reaction
Gases and unburnt products of combustion ignite at the ceiling.
When cool fresh air is introduced to a decaying fire.
Class B Fires
Flammable and Combustible liquids.
Class K Fires
Burning cooking oil and grease.
Class D Fire Extinguishers
Used on burning metals.
PASS System (fire extinguishers)
Pull, Aim, Squeeze, Sweep
Gas used to pressurize water extinguishers.
Works by smothering the fire.
Set of Irons
Haligan and Flat Head Axe
Type of safety glass that shatters into small pieces.
Must be pointed toward the ground in front of you when carrying it.
Life Safety and Utility
Two designations for fire service rope.
A rope that stretches under load.
Type of rope with a protective shield over a load-bearing core.
End of the rope used to tie a knot.
Knot used to tie two ropes of different sizes.
Knot used to secure the rope halyard.
Heat Sensor Label
Indicates a ladder has been exposed to too much heat.
Raising a ladder on it's rail.
Extending sections of a ladder.
Type V Building Construction
Building made of wood or stick frame.
Type I Building Construction
Structure built of fire resistive materials.
Combustible contents of a building.
Type IV Building Construction
Buildings built from heavy timber.
Key roof truss component that fails quickly in a fire.
Fire hose lying on edge with folds adjacent to each other.
A wedge-shaped blade attached at right angles to the handle of the tool.
Device used to connect hose couplings with dissimilar threads.
Common, prevailing, and uncontrolled atmospheric weather conditions.
Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)
Synthetic foam concentrate that, when combined with water, can form a complete vapor barrier over fuel spills and fires and is a highly effective extinguishing and blanketing agent on hydrocarbon fuels.
Area of Origin
The general location where the ignition source and the material first ignited actually came together for the first time.
Electrical device used to indicate the source or location of an activated fire alarm initiating device or the status of the system. The panel may include individual lights located on a schematic map and an audible alarm signal.
The criminal act of deliberately setting fire to property.
Fatal condition caused by severe oxygen deficiency and an excess of carbon monoxide and/or other gases in the blood.
Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)
Term used in codes and standards to identify the legal entity, such as a building or fire official, that has the statutory authority to enforce a code and to approve or require equipment; may be a unit of a local, state, or federal government, depending on where the work occurs. In the insurance industry it may refer to an insurance rating bureau or an insurance company inspection department.
The lowest temperature at which a combustible material ignites in air without a spark or flame.
Written agreement between two or more agencies to automatically dispatch predetermined resources to any fire or other emergency reported in the geographic area covered by the agreement.
The explosive burning of heated gases that occurs when oxygen is introduced into a compartment that has a high concentration of flammable gases and a depleted supply of oxygen due to an existing fire.
Balloon Frame Construction
A construction method using long continuous studs that run from the sill plate (located on the foundation) to the roof eave line. All intermediate floor structures are attached to the studs. Requires the use of long lumber and generally lacks any type of fire stopping within the wall cavity.
Extension ladder with the fly section(s) fully retracted.
To aggressively attack a fire from the exterior with a large diameter (2½-inch [65 mm] or larger) fire stream.
Noncollapsible rubber-covered, rubber-lined hose usually wound on a reel and mounted somewhere on the apparatus and used for extinguishment of incipient and smoldering fires. This hose is most commonly found in ½ 34 , and 1 - inch (13 mm, 19 mm, and 25 mm) diameters and is used for extinguishing low-intensity fires and overhaul operations.
Rope constructed by intertwining strands in the same way that hair is braided.
The act of creating a hole in a wall or floor to gain access to a structure or portion of a structure.
British Thermal Unit (BTU)
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Colorless, odorless, heavier than air gas that neither supports combustion nor burns; used in portable fire extinguishers as an extinguishing agent to extinguish Class B or C fires by smothering or displacing the oxygen.
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Colorless, odorless, dangerous gas (both toxic and flammable) formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon. It combines more than 200 times as quickly with hemoglobin as oxygen, thus decreases the blood's ability to carry oxygen.
Three or more large, interconnected air cylinders, from which smaller SCBA cylinders are recharged; the larger cylinders typically have a capacity of 300 cubic feet (8,490 L).
Chemical Flame Inhibition
Extinguishment of a fire by interruption of the chemical chain reaction.
Long-term and reoccurring.
A collection of rules and regulations that has been enacted by law in a particular jurisdiction. Codes typically address a single subject area; examples include a mechanical, electrical, building, or fire code.
Safe area outside of the warm zone where equipment and personnel are not expected to become contaminated and special protective clothing is not required; the Incident Command Post and other support functions are typically located in this zone.
Extinguishing a fire by using both a direct and an indirect attack. This method combines the steam-generating technique of a ceiling level attack with an attack on the burning materials near floor level.
Ladder that can be used as a single, extension, or A-frame ladder.
A chemical process of oxidation that occurs at a rate fast enough to produce heat and usually light in the form of either a glow or flame.
Transfer of heat through or between solids that are in direct contact.
The ability of a substance to conduct an electrical current.
The act of stopping the further release of a material from its container.
Heat transfer by circulation within a medium such as a gas or a liquid.
Wooden or plastic blocks used to stabilize a vehicle during vehicle extrication or debris following a structural collapse; typically 4 x 4 (100 mm) inches or larger and between 16 to 26 inches (400 mm by 650 mm) long.
Limiting the access of nonemergency personnel to the emergency scene.
Overall plan for incident control established by the incident commander that involves protection of exposures, as opposed to aggressive, offensive intervention.
Part of the sprinkler assembly that creates the discharge pattern of the water.
Deluge Sprinkler System
Fire suppression system that consists of piping and open sprinklers. A fire detection system is used to activate the water or foam control valve. When the system activates, the extinguishing agent expels from all sprinkler heads in the designated area.
Direct Attack (Structural)
Attack method that involves the discharge of water or a foam stream directly onto the burning fuel.
Process of acquiring water from a static source and transferring it into a pump that is above the source's level; atmospheric pressure on the water surface forces the water into the pump where a partial vacuum was created.
Dry Pipe Sprinkler System
Fire suppression system that consists of closed sprinklers attached to a piping system that contains air under pressure. When a sprinkler activates, air is released that activates the water or foam control valve and fills the piping with extinguishing agent.
Extinguishing system that uses dry chemical as the primary extinguishing agent; often used to protect areas containing volatile flammable liquids.
Extinguishing agent suitable for use on combustible metal fires.
Extra fold placed along the length of a section of hose as it is loaded so that its coupling rests in proper position.
The edge of a pitched roof that overhangs an outside wall.
Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)
Professional-level provider of basic life support emergency medical care. Requires certification by some authority.
Employee Assistance Program (EAP)
Program that an employer may provide to employees and their families to help with work or personal problems
Chemical reaction that absorbs thermal energy or heat.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
U.S. government agency that creates and enforces laws designed to protect the air, water, and soil from contamination responsible for researching and setting national standards for a variety of environmental programs.
Controlled process of leaving or being removed from a potentially hazardous location, typically involving relocating people from an area of danger or potential risk to a safer place.
Intended and controlled exhaust locations that are created or improved at or near the fire to allow products of combustion to escape the building.
Right of entry stating that the fire department does not require a warrant to enter a property to suppress a fire, or to remain on the property for a reasonable amount of time afterward in order to determine the origin and cause of the fire.
Chemical reaction that releases thermal energy or heat.
Covering any object in the immediate vicinity of the fire with water or foam.
Structure or separate part of the fireground to which a fire could spread.
Any substance used for the purpose of controlling or extinguishing a fire.
A rapid oxidation process, which is a chemical reaction resulting in the evolution of light and heat in varying intensities.
The sequence of events that allow the ignition source and the material first ignited to come together.
Fire Department Connection (FDC)
Point at which the fire department can connect into a sprinkler or standpipe system to boost the water flow in the system.
Portable fire fighting device designed to combat incipient fires.
Fire Fighting Boots
Protective footwear meeting the design requirements of NFPA, OSHA, and CAN/CSA Z195-02 (R2008)
A flexible portable tube manufactured from watertight materials in 50 to 100 foot (15 to 30 m) lengths that is used to transport water from a source or pump to the point where it is discharged to extinguish fire.
The apparent and obvious design of burned material and the burning path of travel from a point of fire origin. Previously known as a burn pattern
Obsolete term for resistance to fire; inappropriate because all materials except water will burn. Other terms such as fire resistive or fire resistant should be used.
Fire Protection System
System designed to protect structure and minimize loss due to fire.
Fire Resistance Rating
Rating assigned to a material or assembly after standardized testing by an independent testing organization; identifies the amount of time a material or assembly will resist a typical fire, as measured on a standard time-temperature curve.
Solid materials, such as wood blocks, used to prevent or limit the vertical and horizontal spread of fire and the products of combustion in hollow walls or floors, above false ceilings, in penetrations for plumbing or electrical installations, in penetrations of a fire-rated assembly, or in cocklofts and crawl spaces.
Stream of water or other water-based extinguishing agent after it leaves the fire hose and nozzle until it reaches the desired point.
Model of the four elements/conditions required to have a fire. The four sides of the tetrahedron represent fuel, heat, oxygen, and chemical chain reaction.
A model used to explain the elements/conditions necessary for combustion. The sides of the triangle represent heat, oxygen, and fuel.
Fire-rated wall with a specified degree of fire resistance, built of fire-resistive materials and usually extending from the foundation up to and through the roof of a building, that is designed to limit the spread of a fire within a structure or between adjacent structures.
Device that facilitates the connection of hoselines to provide an uninterrupted flow of extinguishing agent.
Visible, luminous body of a burning gas emitting radiant energy including light of various colors given off by burning gases or vapors during the combustion process.
Any liquid having a flash point below 100F and a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 psi absolute.
Flammable (Explosive) Range
The range between the upper flammable limit and lower flammable limit in which a substance can be ignited.
A rapid transition from the growth stage to the fully developed stage.
Minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near the liquid's surface.
Extinguishing agent formed by mixing a foam concentrate with water and aerating the solution for expansion
Result of adding air to a foam solution consisting of water and foam concentrate. Expansion creates the foam bubbles that result in finished foam or foam blanket.
Mixture of foam concentrate and water before the introduction of air.
An adjustable pattern nozzle equipped with a shutoff control device.
Fire stream of finely divided particles used for fire control.
Single-section, collapsible ladder that is easy to maneuver in restricted places such as access openings for attics and lofts.
Techniques used by fire personnel to gain entry into buildings, vehicles, aircraft, or other areas of confinement when normal means of entry are locked or blocked.
To operate independently of the Incident Commander's command and control.
Loss of pressure created by the turbulence of water moving against the interior walls of fire hose, pipes, fittings, and adapters.
A material that will maintain combustion under specified environmental conditions.
The total quantity of combustible contents of a building, space, or fire area, including interior finish and trim, expressed in heat units of the equivalent weight in wood.
Connecting link device that fuses or melts when exposed to heat; used in sprinklers, fire doors, dampers, heat detectors, and ventilators.
Compressible substance, with no specific volume, that tends to assume the shape of the container. Molecules move about most rapidly in this state.
Control valve with a solid plate operated by a handle and screw mechanism. Rotating the handle moves the plate into or out of the waterway.
Portable device for generating auxiliary electrical power; generators are powered by gasoline or diesel engines and typically have 110- and /or 220-volt capacity outlets.
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)
Device designed to protect against electrical shock; when grounding occurs, the device opens a circuit to shut off the flow of electricity. Also known as Ground Fault Indicator (GFI) Receptacle.
Metal or wooden plates used to connect and strengthen the intersections of metal or wooden truss components roof or floor components into a load-bearing unit.
Knot typically used to stabilize long objects that are being hoisted; always used in conjunction with another knot.
Prying tool with a claw at one end and a spike or point at a right angle to a wedge at the other end.
Handcuff (Rescue) Knot
Knot tied in a bight with two adjustable loops in opposing directions; used during rescues to secure hands or feet, so that a victim can be raised or dragged to safety. Also known as Rescue Knot.
Rigid, noncollapsible hose that operates under vacuum conditions without collapsing, allowing pumping apparatus or portable pump to "draft" water from static or nonpressurized sources (lakes, rivers, wells, etc.) that are below the elevation level of the fire pump, usually available in 10-foot (3 m) sections.
Condition, substance, or device that can directly cause injury or loss; the source of a risk.
Substance that can be dangerous to human health or the environment if not properly controlled.
A form of energy characterized by vibration of molecules and capable of initiating and supporting chemical changes and changes of state.
Heat illness caused by exposure to excessive heat; symptoms include weakness, cold and clammy skin, heavy perspiration, rapid and shallow breathing, weak pulse, dizziness, and sometimes unconsciousness.
Heat Sensor Label
Label affixed to the ladder beam near the tip to provide a warning that the ladder has been subjected to excessive heat.
Heat illness in which the body's heat regulating mechanism fails; symptoms include (a) high fever of 105 to 106 degrees F, (b) dry, red, hot skin, , (c) rapid, strong pulse, and (d) deep breaths or convulsions. May result in coma or even death.
Headgear worn by firefighters that provides protection from falling objects, side blows, elevated temperatures, and heated water.
(1) Temporary knot that falls apart if the object held by the rope is removed. (2) Loop that secures the rope but is not part of a standard rope knot.
Any technique by which heat, smoke, and other products of combustion are channeled horizontally out of a structure by way of existing or created horizontal openings such as windows, doors, or other openings in walls. Typically portions of one or more of the horizontal openings will also serve as an air inlet.
Main hose-carrying area of a pumper or other apparatus designed for carrying hose.
Specially designed tool used to open or close a hydrant and to remove hydrant caps.
The process of initiating self-sustained combustion.
Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)
Description of any atmosphere that poses an immediate hazard to life or produces immediate, irreversible, debilitating effects on health.
Dynamic and sudden load placed on a rope, typically during a fall.
Material or chemicals designed and used to start a fire.
Incident Command Post (ICP)
Location at which the Incident Commander and Command staff direct, order, and control resources at an incident; may be colocated with the incident base.
First stage of the burning process in a compartment in which the substance being oxidized is producing some heat, but the heat has not spread to other substances nearby. During this phase, the oxygen content of the air has not been significantly reduced and the temperature within the compartment is not significantly higher than ambient temperature.
Indirect Attack (Structural)
Form of fire attack that involves directing fire streams toward the ceiling of a compartment in order to generate a large amount of steam in order to cool the compartment. Converting the water to steam displaces absorbs the heat of the oxygen, fire, and cools the hot gas layer sufficiently for firefighters to safely enter and make a direct attack on the fire
Ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and use the information that has been exchanged.
Describes equipment that is approved for use in flammable atmospheres; must be incapable of releasing enough electrical energy to ignite the flammable atmosphere.
Ionization Smoke Detector
Type of smoke detector that uses a small amount of radioactive material to make the air within a sensing chamber conduct electricity.
Horizontal structural members used to support a ceiling or floor.
Term used for tying a rope around itself.
Belt with a hook that secures the firefighter to the ladder.
Latent Heat of Vaporization
Quantity of heat absorbed by a substance at the point at which it changes from a liquid to a vapor.
Protected side; the direction opposite from which the wind is blowing.
Device consisting of a bar turning about a fixed point (fulcrum), using power or force applied at a second point to lift or sustain an object at a third point.
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Any of several petroleum products, such as propane or butane, stored under pressure as a liquid.
Load Bearing Wall
Walls of a building that by design carry at least some part of the structural load of the building in the direction of the ground or base.
Practice of minimizing damage and providing customer service through effective mitigation and recovery efforts before, during, and after an incident.
Lower Flammable Limit (LFL)
Lower limit at which a flammable gas or vapor will ignite and support combustion; below this limit the gas or vapor is too lean or thin to burn.
Low Pressure Alarm
Alarm that sounds when SCBA air supply is low, typically 25 percent.
Manual Pull Station
Manual fire alarm activator.
Bricks, blocks, stones, and unreinforced and reinforced concrete products.
Internationally recognized distress signal.
Means of Egress
Continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way, consisting of three separate and distinct parts: exit access, exit, and exit discharge.
(1) Advantage created when levers, pulleys, and tools are used to make work easier during rope rescue or while lifting heavy objects. (2) The ratio of the force applied by a simple machine, such as a lever or pulley, to the force applied to the machine by the user.
To make less harsh or intense; to alleviate.
Consensus-based standards or codes established to provide uniformity in regulations in regards to construction, design, and use. When adopted by the local jurisdiction, these codes become enforceable laws.
Reciprocal assistance from one fire and emergency services agency to another during an emergency, based upon a prearranged agreement; generally made upon the request of the receiving agency.
National Response Framework (NRF)
Document that provides guidance on how communities, states, the U.S. federal government, and private-sector and non-governmental partners conduct all-hazards emergency response.
Natural Fiber Rope
Utility rope made of manila, sisal, or cotton; not accepted for life safety applications.
Wall, usually interior, that supports only its own weight.
Coupling with no distinct male or female components. Also called Storz Coupling or sexless coupling.
Velocity pressure at which water is discharged from the nozzle.
Counter force directed against a person holding a nozzle or a device holding a nozzle by the velocity of water being discharged.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Division of the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) that enforces occupational safety regulations.
Overall plan for incident control established by the Incident Commander (IC) in which responders take aggressive, direct action on the material, container, or process equipment involved in an incident.
Overhand Safety Knot
Supplemental knot tied to prevent the primary knot from failing; prevents the running end of the rope from slipping back through the primary knot.
Operations conducted once the main body of fire has been extinguished; consists of searching for and extinguishing hidden or remaining fire, placing the building and its contents in a safe condition, determining the cause of the fire, and recognizing and preserving evidence of arson.
Hardware mounted on exit doors in public buildings that unlock from the inside and enable doors to be opened when pressure is applied to the release mechanism.
Very small particle of solid material, such as dust, that is suspended in the atmosphere.
Personal Alert Safety System (PASS)
Electronic lack-of-motion sensor that sounds a loud alarm when a firefighter becomes motionless. It can also be manually activated.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
General term for the equipment worn by fire and emergency services responders; includes helmets, coats, trousers, boots, eye protection, hearing protection, protective gloves, protective hoods, SCBA, and PASS devices.
Sharp prong and hook of steel, on a wood, metal, fiberglass, or plastic handle of varying length, used for pulling, dragging, and probing.
Point of Origin
Exact physical location where the heat source and fuel come in contact with each other and a fire begins.
Guide to decision making in an organization.
Storage tank used during a relay or shuttle operation to hold water from water tanks or hydrants. This water can then be used to supply attack apparatus. Also called Catch Basin, Fold-a-Tank, Portable Basin, or Porta-Tank.
Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV)
Method of ventilating a room or structure by mechanically blowing fresh air through an inlet opening into the space in sufficient volume to create a slight positive pressure within and thereby forcing the contaminated atmosphere out the exit opening.
Attack hose connected to a discharge when the hose is loaded; this shortens the time it takes to deploy the hose for fire fighting.
Rapid but thorough search to determine the location of victims; performed either before or during fire suppression operations. May be conducted with or without a charged hoseline, depending on local policy.
Step-by-step written plan that is closely related to a policy. Procedures help an organization to ensure that it consistently approaches a task in the correct way, in order to accomplish a specific objective.
Products of Combustion
Materials produced and released during burning.
Hydraulic spreading tool that is specially designed to open doors that swing inward.
Rate-of-Rise Heat Detector
Temperature-sensitive device that sounds an alarm when the temperature changes at a preset value, such as 12°-15°F per minute.
Short for reinforcing bar. These steel bars are placed in concrete forms before the cement is poured. When the concrete sets (hardens) the rebar within it adds considerable strength.
Fitting used to attach a smaller hose to a larger hose. The female end has the larger threads, while the male end has the smaller threads.
Allowing firefighters to rest, rehydrate, and recover during an incident.
To reignite because of latent heat, sparks, or smoldering embers; rekindling can be prevented by proper overhaul.
Exposure to conditions that create a hazard to the respiratory system, including products of combustion, toxic gases, and superheated or oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
Straight ladder with folding hooks at the top end; the hooks anchor the ladder over the roof ridge.
Free end of the rope used for hoisting, pulling, or belaying.
Methods and operating procedures by which firefighters attempt to save property and reduce further damage from water, smoke, heat, and exposure during or immediately after a fire; may be accomplished by removing property from a fire area, by covering it, or by other means.
Slow, thorough search to ensure that no occupants were overlooked during the primary search; conducted after the fire is under control by personnel who did not conduct the primary search.
Perception of the surrounding environment, and the ability to anticipate future events.
Ongoing evaluation of influential factors at the scene of an incident.
Alarm-initiating device designed to actuate when visible or invisible products of combustion (other than fire gases) are present in the room or space where the unit is installed.
Hose stream that stays together as a solid mass, as opposed to a fog or spray stream; a solid stream is produced by a smooth bore nozzle and should not be confused with a straight stream.
Striking the surface of a roof or floor to determine its structural integrity or locate underlying support members; the blunt end of a hand tool is used for this purpose.
Small tool primarily used to tighten or loosen hose couplings; can also be used as a prying tool or a gas key.
Water flow discharge device in a sprinkler system; consists of a threaded intake nipple, a discharge orifice, heat-actuated plug, and a deflector to create an effective fire stream pattern that is suitable for fire control.
Prearranged, temporary strategic location, away from the emergency scene, where units assemble and wait until they are assigned a position on the emergency scene and from which these resources (personnel, apparatus, tools, and equipment) must be able to respond within three minutes of being assigned. Staging area managers report to the IC or operations section chief if established.
A set of principles, protocols, or procedures that explain how to do something or provide a set of minimum standards to be followed. Adhering to a standard is not required by law, although standards may be incorporated in codes, which are legally enforceable.
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
Rules for how personnel should perform routine functions or emergency operations. Procedures are typically written in a handbook, so that all firefighters can become familiar with them. Also knows as Operating Instructions (OI), Predetermined Procedures, or Standard Operating Guidelines (SOG's).
Middle of the rope, between the working end and the running part.
Wet or dry system of pipes in a large single-story or multistory building with fire hose outlets installed in different areas or on different levels of a building to be used by firefighters and/or building occupants. The system is used to provide for quick deployment of hoselines during fire fighting operations.
Nonthreaded (sexless) coupling commonly found on large-diameter hose.
Structural Fire Fighting
Activities required for rescue, fire suppression, and property conservation in structures, vehicles, vessels, and similar types of properties.
Hose that is designed for the purpose of moving water between a water source and a pump that is supplying attack hoselines or fire suppression systems.
Kinetic energy associated with the random movement of molecules or atoms.
In the Incident Management System, a shared command role that allows all agencies with responsibility for the incident, either geographical or functional, to manage the incident by establishing a common set of incident objectives and strategies. In unified command there is a single incident command post and a single operations chief at any given time.
Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL)
Upper limit at which a flammable gas or vapor will ignite; above this limit the gas or vapor is too rich to burn (lacks the proper quantity of oxygen). Also known as Upper Explosive Limit (UEL).
Gaseous form of a substance that is normally in a solid or liquid state at room temperature and pressure; formed by evaporation from a liquid or sublimation from a solid.
Ventilating at a point above the fire through existing or created openings and channeling the contaminated atmosphere vertically within the structure and out the top. Done with openings in the roof, skylights, roof vents, or roof doors.
Device used for creating anchors and lashings, or for packaging patients and rescuers; typically constructed from the same material as synthetic rope.
Rope designed for any use except rescue.
Figure 8 on a Bight
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