Over the counter drugs test 4
Terms in this set (42)
What are over the counter drugs?
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are those available without a prescription.
What are some examples of over the counter drugs?
Aspirin and Acetaminophen are commonly available drugs. There is also some toothpastes, mouthwashes, eye drops, wart removers, first aid creams and ointments that contain antibiotics, and even dandruff shampoos are considered OTC drugs.
Some OTC drugs like the analgesic Ibuprofen and the indigestion remedy Famotidine were originally available as prescription because of their
-Excellent safety records for over the counter sale
Substantially lower amount of active ingredient in each tablet, capsule, or caplet than does the prescription drug
The over the counter sleep aid Diphenhydramine have adverse side effects that is especially harmful to?
What act was enacted in 1938 and then amended in 1951 to clarify the difference between OTC and prescription drugs?
The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act, enacted in 1938.
How did the Food, drug and Cosmetic act define between prescription drugs and OTC drugs?
Prescription drugs were defined as habit forming, toxic, or unsafe for use except under a doctor's supervision. Anything else could be sold over the counter
What year did a new law come into effect to require companies to report serious adverse side?
There was no organized system in the United States for reporting the adverse effects of OTC drugs until 2007, when a new law became effective that required companies to report serious adverse events associated with OTC drugs
The nurse should teach her patients that if they are using OTC drugs they should
use common sense in determining when a symptom or ailment is minor and when it requires medical attention and consult a doctor if they are unsure.
When reading over the counter drugs
Read the label carefully
Get help from a pharmacist or doctor for drug interactions
Do not take more than recommended dose
Take only for recommended time
Keep out of reach of children
Nonprescription drugs are required to have labels that explain what a drug's benefits and risks are and how to use the drug correctly. Such as
Drug Facts." Active ingredients are listed at the top, followed by uses, warnings, directions, other information, and inactive ingredients.
The term 'Warnings' on a drug label is
When the drug should not be used, when a doctor or pharmacist should be consulted (and after how long), and which factors can alter the expected response to the drug are listed, usually in four sections.
Do drugs interact differently on kids and adults?
Children's bodies metabolize and react to drugs differently from the way adults' bodies do. A drug may be used by many people for many years before its hazards to children are discovered. For example, many years passed before researchers confirmed that the risk of Reye syndrome was linked to the use of aspirin in children who had chickenpox or influenza
Doctors and parents alike are often surprised to learn that most OTC drugs, even those drugs with recommended dosages for children, have not been thoroughly tested in children. True or False
The effectiveness of some cough and cold remedies is unproved, especially in children, so that giving these drugs to children may unnecessarily expose them to harmful effects of a drug and may be a waste of money. True or False
Should we trust the age per dose when giving drugs to children?
Giving a child a correct drug dose can be tricky. Although children's doses are often expressed in terms of age ranges (for example, children aged 2 to 6 or 6 to 12), age is not the best criterion. Children can vary greatly in size within any age range, so experts advise using the child's weight to determine doses of OTC drugs.
If the label does not give instructions on how much drug to give the child?
A parent should not guess. The parent should consult a pharmacist or doctor. Such consultation may prevent a child from receiving a dangerous drug or a dangerously high dose of a potentially helpful drug.
Should a parent use an ordinary teaspoon to measure a teaspoon of medication for a child?
Many drugs for treating children come in liquid form. Even though the label should give clear guidelines about the dose, a child may be given the wrong dose because the adult in charge uses an ordinary teaspoon. However, a cylindrical measuring spoon is far better for measuring a child's dose, and an oral syringe is preferred for measuring and squirting a precise amount of drug into an infant's mouth.
Should OTC cough and cold medication be given to children under 4 years of age?
People should not give over-the-counter cough or cold preparations to children under 4 unless a doctor tells them to do so and gives specific instructions on dose. Caregivers should be sure to use only products formulated for the child's age and weight.
Does aging change the speed and way the body metabolizes drugs?
Normal aging changes the speed and ways in which the body metabolizes drugs and older people tend to have more diseases and to take more than one drug at a time. For these reasons, older people may be more likely than younger ones to experience side effects or drug interactions. More and more prescription drug labels specify whether different doses are needed for older people, but such information is rarely included on OTC drug labels
Can older people take OTC drugs without adverse effects?
Many OTC drugs are potentially hazardous for older people. The risk increases when drugs are taken regularly at the maximum dose. For example, an older person who has arthritis may frequently use an analgesic or anti-inflammatory drug, with potentially serious consequences, such as a bleeding peptic ulcer. Such an ulcer is life threatening for an older person and can occur without warning
Should elderly people take antihistamines OTC?
Most antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, are designated as "sedating" antihistamines and may pose special risks for older people.
The nurse is at a community center and talking to elderly group on OTC medications. She should make sure to mention that
Many nighttime pain relief formulas, cough and cold remedies, allergy drugs, and sleep aids contain antihistamines. These antihistamines may cause drowsiness or fatigue and may worsen some disorders common among older people, such as closed-angle glaucoma and an enlarged prostate gland. They can also make a person dizzy or unsteady, leading to falls and broken bones.
What are some adverse effects of taking Antihistamines, particularly at a high dose or in combination with other drugs,
It can sometimes cause blurred vision, light-headedness, dry mouth, difficulty with urination, constipation, and confusion in older people. Fexofenadine and loratadine are considered to be "non sedating" antihistamines, and they are not likely to cause drowsiness or other side effects.
One elderly man at the community center wants to know if antacids are ok to take OTC? The nurse explains
Older people may be more susceptible to the possible side effects of antacids. Antacids that contain aluminum are more likely to cause constipation, and antacids that contain magnesium are more likely to cause diarrhea and dehydration.
The nurse advises the people at the community center to write down a list of their OTC medications. True or False?
True. During visits to the doctor, older people should mention all OTC products they are taking, including vitamins, minerals, and medicinal herbs. This information helps the doctor evaluate the entire drug regimen and determine whether or not an OTC drug may be responsible for certain symptoms.
Can drugs move from the mom to her fetus through the placenta?
Drugs can move from a pregnant woman to her and drugs can be transmitted through breast milk to the baby. Some such drugs can affect or harm the fetus or baby, so pregnant women and breastfeeding women should consult their doctor or pharmacist before taking any OTC drug or medicinal herb. OTC drug labels should be checked because they contain warnings against use during pregnancy and breastfeeding, if applicable.
What are some problematic drugs for the pregnant mother and fetus?
Certain types of drugs are particularly problematic. They include antihistamines (commonly contained in cough and cold remedies, allergy drugs, motion sickness drugs, and sleep aids) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs should not be used during the last 3 months of pregnancy unless specified by a doctor, because they may cause problems in the fetus or complications during delivery.
Can taking an OTC drug worsen chronic conditions?
A number of chronic disorders can become worse if an OTC drug is taken inappropriately. Because OTC drugs are intended primarily for occasional use by people who are essentially healthy, people who have a chronic or serious disorder or who plan to take an OTC drug every day should consult a health care practitioner before they purchase OTC products
Avoid cold remedies that contain alcohol
Avoid Decongestants. These drugs may worsen diabetes and have dangerous side effects. Also look out for the amount of sugar in the cough syrup.
Avoid Antihistamines and decongestants because of dangerous side effects
Avoid antihistamines and decongestants because of complications of glaucoma
Avoid cold remedies that may react with prescriptions. Decongestant and Antacids should also be avoided, and patients should consult with a doctor or pharmacist.
High blood pressure
Avoid Analgesics, Antacids and Decongestants and consult with a doctor because of dangerous side effects
People with hyperthyroidism should consult a doctor or pharmacist before they take decongestants because side effects can be dangerous.
People with kidney disorders should consult a doctor or pharmacist before they select an antacid
The nurse should remember to ask her patients about the OTC drugs they are taking at home
Many OTC drugs and medicinal herbs can interact adversely with a wide range of drugs Some of these interactions can be serious, interfering with the effectiveness of a drug or causing side effects.
The nurse knows that the patient needs extra medication advice when she says that she takes Aspirin along with her prescription of Warfarin
Taking aspirin with the anticoagulant warfarin can increase the risk of abnormal bleeding.
The nurse is about to give her heart patient Digoxin. She knows her patient needs extra counselling when he states that he takes an antacid daily.
An antacid containing aluminum or magnesium can reduce the absorption of digoxin, taken for heart disease.
The nurse asks the teenager if he takes any vitamins or minerals?
Taking a multiple vitamin and mineral supplement can interfere with the action of some prescription drugs. For example, the antibiotic tetracycline may be ineffective if swallowed with a product that contains calcium, magnesium, or iron
The patient states that he has a cough and started to take an OTC cold medicine that contains Pseudoephedrine. The nurse knows that there is a chance of drug interaction with MAOI since the patient is on antidepressants. She advises him to stop the OTC medicine. Why?
The labels of some cold remedies that contain pseudoephedrine caution against using the product with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Many people do not know that the antidepressant they are taking is an MAOI (such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine), this important warning is not helpful.