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Small Animal Therio
Terms in this set (121)
Hormone of ovulation?
Is progesterone diagnostic for pregnancy in the dog and cat?
How many embryonic tissue types create the vagina, vestible, and bladder and what occurs if there are problems with these tissues?
You perform a vaginoscopy and see "fluffy folds". Stage?
You perform a vaginoscopy and see "flattened, wrinkled folds". Stage?
T/F: Vaginal Cytology is a great tool for ovulation timing.
Vaginal cytology is a bioassay for ________
What will you see on a vaginal cytology of an animal under the influence of estrogen?
Vaginal cytology has parabasal cells and some intermediate cells. Stage?
Proestrus (b/c intermediates)
Vaginal cytology has superficial, anuclear squamous, and some intermediate cells. Stage?
Vaginal cytology has neutrophils and parabasal cells. Stage?
Diestrus or early proestrus
You look at a vaginal cytology and aren't sure if the animal is in diestrus or proestrus. What additional test can you perform to figure it out?
Progesterone (P4) is higher in diestrus
P4 at LH peak?
P4 during ovulation?
P4 after ovulation?
Assume LH peak at __ng/mL. Ovulation is __ days later. Breed __ days after that. Breed again after another __ days.
During serial P4 monitoring of a proestrus bitch I note that her P4 is 2.1. I perform an LH test and it is positive. When should I expect her to P4 to rise above 4?
In 24-48 hours
Surgical AI is ideal for what type of semen?
Semen dose for vaginal AI
250 PMMN sperm (150 mill minimum)
Semen does for intrauterine AI
100 million PMMN sperm
T/F: The onset of cytological diestrus is abrupt
How long after the onset of cytological diestrus should I expect parturition to occur?
57 +/- 1 day
How long after the LH peak should I expect parturition to occur?
65 +/- 1 day
How long after one random mating should I expect parturition to occur?
57 - 72 days
Instrument used to perform transcervical AI without an endoscope?
What is required for LH peak in cats
Sufficient coital stimulation (4x in a 2hr period)
Length of estrus in queens?
How can we induce ovulation in cats?
hCG has LH effect; give day of or day before copulation
T/F: Surgical AI is the best method of AI for cats
False; adversely affect ovulation
Biggest cause of infertility in the bitch
Improper timing of breeding
Time from onset of bleeding to next onset of proestrus
Most effective and reliable method for diagnosing abnormalities of the vestibule and vagina?
Disease w/ respiratory, oral, or venereal transmission that causes fetal mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and premature delivery and is a greatest risk to naive pregnant bitches?
Canine Herpes Virus
When is it most important to control CHV exposure to a pregnant bitch
3 weeks prepartum to 3 weeks postpartum
T/F: Brucella is zoonotic and always pathologic
My dog seems healthy but I had difficulty getting her pregnant and she just aborted a litter. The vet said some of her lymph nodes were enlarged and I noticed the male I've been mating her w/ has an enlarged scrotum. Diagnosis?
_____________________________ is caused by repeated estrus cycles and predisposes a bitch to pyometra
Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia
T/F: Ovarian cysts can secrete estrogen or progesterone and cause cycle abnormalities
Treatment for ovarian cysts?
Why is it important to diff ovarian cyst from a granulosa cell tumor
Prolonged high estrogen from tumor wipes out bone marrow
A young bitch comes into heat for short periods of time very close together. What is this?
DDX for proestrus or estrus lasting longer than 8 weeks
Ovarian cyst, GCT, or exogenous estrogen
How long does a bitch need for uterine involution (minimum interestrus interval in normal dogs)
3 months (4 for interestrus)
Genetic infertility is common in
Cats are ____ day breeders
Inadequate indoor light can cause what in queens
Assay for an ovarian remnant
AMH (from granulosa cells)
T/F: Spontaneous ovulation is normal in anestrus queens
A bitch that has had an abortion should always be tested for_________
What orthopedic problems may accompany a Brucella infection
Diskospondylitis and lameness
Do follicular cysts require surgery in a dog
Can try to luteinize w/ hCG or GnRH
List the 3 semen fractions for dogs
Prostatic, spermy, prostatic
Minimum normal sperm motility in a dog
Minimum normal sperm morphology in a dog
On an Eosin-nagrosin stain, dead sperm will stain what color?
Total # sperm in a dog
10 million/lb BW
T/F: Sperm counts in dogs depend on technique, presence of teaser bitch, and dog/testes size?
In dogs, the tail of the epididymis should face
What is the bioassy for the presence of testosterone in dogs? Cats?
Prostate size; penile spines
List the accessory sex glands of the male dog
Term for progressive sperm motility of <70%
The following are differentials for what semen abnormality: Intersex animals, germinal cell aplasia, bilateral cryptorchid, trauma, orchitis, neoplasia
EVERY breeding dog should be tested for
What enzyme from the tail of the epididymis can be used to determine if there was incomplete ejaculation (Bilateral duct obstruction)?
Alk Phos (<5000)
T/F: Oligospermic animals are infertile
What semen abnormality has the follow ddx: idiopathic, season, neoplasia, prostatic ds, Orchitis/brucella, illness w/in 3 months, or iatrogenic
T/F: All sperm abnormalities are correlated with canine infertility
False (just midpiece attach/ultrastucture, microcephalic, and proximal droplet)
Semen abnormality with the following ddx: Sexual abstinence, orchitis, tumors, prostatitis, high fever, obesity
Teratozoospermia or Asthenozoospermia (also some lubes and latex)
8 yo M mixed breed presents for "ribbon-like" stool and prostate is symmetrically enlarged and nonpainful. Diagnosis and treatment?
BPH; Castration or Finasteride
Causes include ascending infection or hematogenous spead and present very sick or subclinical. Treated with castration and abx +/- fluids
T/F: Prostatic neoplasia is more common in castrated dogs
Stud dog presents for an enlarged scrotum and back pain. You not enlarged epididymides and scrotal dermatitis on PE. Semen evaluation shows 60% PMMN sperm. Diagnosis?
Brucella w/ diskospondylitis
T/F: Brucella agglutination test is highly sensitive and specific, so all animals that test positive must be sterilized or culled.
False (false positives are common so send out for Ag testing to confirm)
T/F: Brucella infections are difficult to clear and require mandatory reporting and isolation/sterilization/depopulation
Dietary deficiencies in riboflavin, EFA linoleate, or Vit A (excess too) causes what in toms?
Hormone produced by the placenta that can test for pregnancy at day 22ish after breeding (DOGS)
Relaxin (day 28 in cats)
T/F: Canine and Feline pregnancies are CL dependent to term
3 words to describe canine and feline placenta
Endotheliochorial, zonary, deciduate
DOGS: How long after LH/ovulation until pregnancy can be palpated
DOGS: How long after LH/ovulation until pregnancy can be detected on US. Can you do a fetal count at this time? Should you detect a heartbeat?
3-4 weeks; No; Yes
DOGS: What should fetal heartbeat be? What is the marker for when intervention is needed if the animal is at term?
>180 bpm; <160 bpm
DOGS: When does fetal skull calcification occur
My pregnant bitch's body temp falls below 99F. When should I expect parturition?
Within 1 day
T/F: In pregnant bitches, expect a normocytic normochromic anemia, high TP, and possible gestational DM
One of the dogs on my breeding operation was positive for Brucella Ag. Should I immediately give all my pregnant bitches and breeding dogs and modified live vaccine for Brucella?
NO (no live vax for preggos)
When should a pregnant bitch and queens be switched to a puppy/kitten diet
Last 1/3 of gestation
I know that eclampsia is a serious problem in small dogs. To prevent this, should I supplement my pregnant Maltese with Ca prior to her pregnancy?
NO (will make it worse)
Name for when the P4 of a pregnant bitch that is not at term falls below 1-2 and must be supplemented to prevent pregnancy loss
Average length of gestation in cats
Physical signs that are suggestive of pregnancy in queens
Mammary changes (3 wks) and pink, prominent nipples
Cats: when is pregnancy palpable
Cats: When can you US pregnancy? Will there be fetal heartbeat?
2.5 weeks; yes
Cats: When do fetal skulls calcify? Molars?
Cats: what radiographic feature of the fetus can be used to estimate gestational length?
Crown rump length
Pregnant queen ration amounts by trimester
___________________ is common in young queens, occurs due to progesterone influence, and cannot be differentiated from neoplasia without cyt/biopsy
Mammary gland hypertrophy
P4 in a term bitch drops below 2 ng/ml. When will parturition occur?
Fetal GI peristalsis can be observed at what stage?
Prolonged gestation is common with what type of pregnancies
A dog might be in dystocia if she has been in stage 1 for > ___ hours
In stage 2 labor, a dog may be in dystocia if: It has been in stage 2 for _________ hours and hasn't produced any pups, has has hard contractions for > _____ min and produced no pup, OR its been >____ hours since the last pup was born.
4; 30; 2
T/F: It is normal for a bitch to have green vulvar discharge during stage 1, before the pups are born.
When uterine muscle is unable to contract even with exogenous oxytocin
DDX for primary vs secondary uterine intertia
Primary: HypoCa or singleton
Secondary: Obstructive dystocia
Major contraindication for oxytocin administration?
When should you give up on the oxytocin and pursue C section
No response after 3 doses
T/F: Ketamine, methoxyflurane, xylazine, and ace should never be used as anesthesia for a c-section
How do you know when to time an elective C-section?
63 days from LH surge
When P4 falls <2 (daily monitor)
When fetal HR falls <180 bpm
What might you give the day of an elective c-section to induce final fetal maturation?
How should you stimulate breathing to resuscitate a neonate?
Vigorous rubbing, DO NOT SWING
Useful drugs for neonatal resuscitation
Dextrose, Doxapram (resp stim), epinephrine
Normal postpartum discharge common in bitches 4-6 weeks pp that is odorless and red or green?
Nutrient requirements for lactating bitches
Postpartum bitch with clody/yellow, malodorous lochia, painful abdomen, fever, and lethargy. Diagnosis?
Acute Puerperal Metritis
Who is at the greatest risk for ecamplsia
Small breed, many puppies, 1-4 weeks pp
2 weeks post-partum chihuahua has been trembling and weak. Dilated pupils OU. Tachypneic and Tachycardic. Treatment?
IV Ca gluconate
Post-partum bitch had prolonged, hemorrhagic vulvar discharge. Cytology of the discharge shows large polynucleated trophoblasts. Her CBC is normal. Diagnosis and treatment?
SIPS; benign neglect
Dogs have peak fertility how many days after LH peak
What is yellow staining of a newborn and what causes it?
T/F: Prostatitis is a type of UTI and needs specific abx (enrofloxacin) for about a month
True (hard for abx to penetrate prostate)
What % of mammary tumors in cats are malignant? Dogs?
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