AP Biology Plant Structure and Diversity

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Plants
Multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose. develop from multicellular embryos and carry out photosynthesis.
Sporophyte
diploid (2N) spore producing phase of a plants life-cycle., diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism
Gametophyte
haploid (N) gamete producing phase of a plants life-cycle, the gamete-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
What plants need to survive
Sunlight, water and minerals, gas exchange, movement of water and nutrients
Origins in water
The first plants evolved from an organism much like multicellular green algae.
Evolution of plants
algae(protist)--> moss,(water conducting vascular tissue) --> ferns,(seeds)--> cone bearing plants, --> angiosperms (flowering seeds enclosed in fruit) flowering plants
Four groups of plants
Mosses, Ferns, Gymnosperms(conifers), Angiosperms(flowering plants)
Bryophytes
A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants. Depends on water for reproduction
Groups of Bryophytes
mosses, liverworts, hornworts
Mosses
have rhizoids instead of roots; fuzzy green gametophyte; long slender sporophyte. Nonvascular
Rhizoids
the hairlike fibers that anchor a moss to the soil and take in water from the soil
Liverworts
grows as a thick crust on moist rocks or soil along sides of streams. Small umbrella shaped structures for gametophyte stage.
Gemmae
small multicellular reproductive structures that allow liverworts to reproduce asexually
Hornworts
slender curved structures that look like horns; live in moist soil and often mixed with grass plants
bryophytes
sporophytes which produce haploid spores grow at the op of the gameotophyte plant, when the spores are ripe they are shed from the capsule the attach to a female gametophyte and make a new plant
Protonema
mass of tangled green filaments in mosses that forms during germination
Antheridia
Location of sperm production in bryophytes. at the top of gametophytes
Archegonia
Location of egg production in bryophytes. at the top of gametophytes
Vascular tissue
tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body by xylem and phloem
Tracheids
Specialized cells to conduct water, key cells in xylem.
Xylem
the vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in some plants
Phloem
the vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants
Lignin
substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid and allows them to grow tall
Roots
underground organs that absorb water and minerals
Leaves
The main photosynthetic organs of vascular plants that contain vascular bundles
Stems
carry substances between roots and leaves; provide support for plant; holds leaves up to sunlight
Veins
bundles of vascular tissue
Club Mosses
look like tiny pine trees, grow in moist woodlands and nearby streams
Horsetails
seedless vascular plant with jointed stems; needlelike branches
Ferns
underground stems; leaves are called fronds; most common nonvascular plant
Rhizomes
underground stems of ferns
Fronds
leaves of a fern
Sporangia
multicellular organs that produce spores in vascular plants. found on bottom of fronds in ferns
Sori
a group of sporangia
Life cycle of ferns
in this plant, diploid sporophyte is dominant phase
Gymnosperms
seed plant that bears its seeds directly on the surfaces of cones
Angiosperms
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary then inside a fruit
Cones
the seed bearing structures of gymnosperms
Flowers
the seed bearing structures of angiosperms
Pollen grain
male gametophyte in seed plants
Pollination
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants
Seed
the embryo of a plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply
Embryo
an organism in its early stages of development (diploid)
Seed Coat
protective outer layer of seeds of flowering plants
Flowers
The reproductive structures unique to angiosperms
Fruit
a wall of tissue surrounding a seed. not a leaf (attracts pollinators)
Monocot
have one seed leaf (cotyledons)
Dicot
has two seed leafs (cotyledons)
Cotyledon
first leaf or first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant
Annual
a flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle within the space of a year
Biennial
flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in two years
Perennial
A plant lasting for three seasons or more