The smell of a solution used to clean a floor can quickly be detected throughout a house. Scientists explain this phenomenon by theorizing that gas molecules from the solution are in continuous random high-speed motion, drifting rapidly, and permeating the air. Which fact or data would best increase the strength of this theory?
Rank these locations from most hours of daily sunlight to least on the June solstice.http://oi68.tinypic.com/a2djxw.jpgRank locations from most hours of daily sunlight to least on the December solstice.http://oi65.tinypic.com/w88cg4.jpgLabel the images of the moon with the correct phase names as seen from the Northern Hemisphere.http://oi65.tinypic.com/20af5ma.jpgPlace the phases of the Moon in the correct order as you would see them in the Northern Hemisphere over the course of a month.http://oi67.tinypic.com/13z7dzk.jpgSay it is around midnight on a night of a third quarter moon near the Equator. Where in the sky is the Moon located?close to the eastern horizonWhy does the Moon go through phases?The Sun shines on the Moon, illuminating half of it and leaving half dark.You are currently in Amsterdam, Netherlands (52° N, 5° E) and the Moon's phase is waxing crescent. You see yesterday\'s news report from Irkutsk, Russia (52° N, 104° E) which shows footage of the Moon. The phase of the Moon in the news report from Irkutsk will be closest to which of the following phases?waxing crescentIf an observer at the North Pole sees a full moon, an observer at the Equator will see afull moonLabel the orbit of the Moon with its phases.http://oi68.tinypic.com/2zq4ugj.jpgThis famous photograph of Earth as viewed from the Moon was taken in 1968 by Apollo 8 astronauts; it shows a gibbous Earth as seen from the Moon. If the Moon were at its crescent phase as seen from Earth, what would be the phase of the Earth as seen from the Moon?gibbousLabel the orbit of the Moon with its phases.http://oi65.tinypic.com/24wx4jd.jpgSort the images of different phases of the Moon based on when the Moon is in the sky, at or above the horizon.In the sky at noon: waning crescent, waxing crescent
In the sky both at noon and midnight: third quarter
In the sky at midnight: full moon, waxing gibbous
http://oi65.tinypic.com/2elatr8.jpgDuring a clear and pleasant night you look up into the sky and recognize the planet Jupiter near the center of the constellation of Taurus. If you look for Jupiter the following night at around the same time, where are you most likely to find the planet?It will still be in the constellation of Taurus.The images below each show two observations of a planet against the more distant background stars, taken several days apart. Choose the tab (A or B) with the planet that is in prograde motion. Note that west is to the right in each image.http://oi67.tinypic.com/1495yxk.jpgLabel the diagram below with the features of the Ptolemaic model that are used to explain retrograde motion. (Not all labels will be used.)
What aspect of Ptolemy's model explains the retrograde motion of the planets?http://oi64.tinypic.com/szcqci.jpgWhich of the following are true of the ancient Greek philosophers' beliefs and approach to astronomy and the heavens, and which are false?True of Greek philosopher's beliefs: heavenly bodies move in perfect circles, Universe is perfect and unchanging
False of Greek philosopher's beliefs: The sun is at the center of the Solar System, observations and data are of the first importance, the Earth is flatA doctor has a patient who has symptoms of headache, neck stiffness, fever, nausea, and confusion. According to Occam's (or Ockham's) razor, which of the following hypotheses that have been proposed about the suffering patient is the best explanation?
Hypothesis 1: The patient is faking his symptoms in order to trick the doctor into making a misdiagnosis so that the patient can sue and get a lot of money.
Hypothesis 2: The patient has a brain tumor, strained neck, and infection, which together would account for the symptoms.
Hypothesis 3: The patient has meningitis, which can cause all the patient's symptoms.Hypothesis 3The model of the Universe developed by Copernicus says thatthe Sun, not the Earth, is at the center of the Solar System.The experiments Galileo performed, such as rolling a ball down an inclined plane, are important because theyshowed the value of doing experiment and observation instead of relying on philosophy.Choose the correct statement about astronomical discoveries made using the telescope.Galileo was the first to observe Saturn and its rings, although he didn't know what they were.Galileo first observed Jupiter's four largest moons in 1610. What was the significance of his discovery?The moons' orbits supported the heliocentric model of the Solar System.Sort the items below into those which characterize science and those which characterize pseudoscience.Characteristics of Scientific Theory: based on observation, precise predictions, falsifiable, experiments can be replicated
Characteristics of Psuedoscientific Theory: based on authority, ambiguous predictions, cannot be tested, consistent with beliefsSort the items below into the bins corresponding to the correct Kepler's law of planetary motion.Kepler's First Law: Planets move in elliptical orbits. The sun is located at one focus of a planet's orbit.
Kepler's Second Law: Planet's sweep out equal areas in equal times. Planets move fastest at the perihelion.
Kepler's Third Law: A planet's semi-major axis is related to it's orbital period. Planets with larger orbits take more time to complete one orbit.The orbit of a comet around the Sun is shown below, with several points in the orbit labeled.
The comet's speed at A is ______ the comet's speed at D.http://oi68.tinypic.com/205awq1.jpgLabel these key features of an elliptical orbit. Labels may be used more than once.
A perfectly circular orbit has ______ the orbit pictured here.http://oi67.tinypic.com/e6dkrl.jpgOrbits of four different planets around the same star are shown. The masses of the planets, expressed in terms of the mass M of the smallest planet, can be found in the included table, while the relative sizes of the orbits can be determined from the diagram. Assume that the mass of the star is much larger than the mass of the planets.
Rank the period T of the four orbits, from longest to shortest.http://oi64.tinypic.com/2lj2c7c.jpgAn asteroid is discovered in a nearly circular orbit around the Sun, with an orbital radius that is 3.07 times Earth's. What is the asteroid's orbital period, its "year," in terms of Earth years?5.379 yearsCompared to the Earth's orbit around the Sun...Mercury has an orbital period that is shorter.
Neptune has an orbital period that is longer.
a planet that orbits farther than the Earth has an orbital period that is longer.
most of the planets in our Solar System have an orbital period that is longer.A new planet has been discovered in our Solar System, and it is traveling in a circular orbit around the Sun. The planet has a semi-major axis of 10.7 AU. What is the period of the new planet's orbit?
What is the average velocity of the planet?> 35.0006
> 9.0685 k/sTwo very small planets are orbiting a much larger star. Planet A orbits the star with a period T. Planet B circles the star at four times the distance of Planet A, but Planet B is four times as massive as Planet A. Planet B orbits the star with a period of8TDetermine whether each of the statements below is true or false, and place it in the appropriate bin.True: Objects can have equal speeds without having equal velocities. Constant velocity implies constant speed. If you are given an object's velocity, you can definitely determine its speed.
False: Objects can have constant velocities without having equal speeds. Constant speed implies constant velocity. If you know the distance an object travels, and the time it takes to do so, you can determine the object's velocity.According to Newton's second law of motion, when a net force acts on an object, the acceleration isinversely proportional to the object's mass.When a net force is acting on an object, the objectis accelerating.Determine which statements must be true about each of the two objects described below, and place them accordingly. Some statements will not apply to either object, and some statements might apply to both objects.Object A is acted on by a non-zero net force pointing toward the north:
> This object must be accelerating towards the north.
>This object may or may not have a non-zero speed.
The net force on object B is zero:
> This object is certainly not accelerating.
>This object may or may not have a non-zero speed.The Earth pulls on the Moon with a gravitational force, keeping it in its nearly circular, 27-day orbit. According to Newton's third law, the reaction force to the Earth's pull on the Moon isthe Moon's pull on the Earth.Mass and weight are related but are different physical quantities. Separate the following items into those which apply to mass and those which apply to weight.Mass: measured in units of kilograms, the inertia of an object, does not depend on gravity.
Weight: measured in units of newtons, the force experienced by an object due to gravity, different on the Moon than on Earth.Which has greater monetary value, a newton of gold on Earth or a newton of gold on the Moon?The newton of gold on the Moon.It is always a good idea to get some sense of the "size" of units. For example, the mass of an apple is about 100 g, while a bicycle is about a hundred times more massive at around 10 kg. Estimate the mass of the objects below.A dime is about 1g.
A smartphone is about 100g.
An adult male is about 100 kg.
A college physics textbook is about 1kg.
A ripe banana is about 100g.
A small car is about 1,000kg.If the radius of the Earth somehow decreased with no change in mass, your weight wouldincrease.An astronaut stands on the surface of the Moon and drops a brick (with a mass of 3 kg) and a cell phone (with a mass of 200 g) at the same time from the same height. Which will hit the ground first? Ignore effects of atmospheric friction.They will hit the ground at the same time.Light is:an oscillating electric field and a fluctuating magnetic field that are perpendicular to each other.Which of the following statements are true concerning light?It moves at a constant speed through a vacuum.
The speed of light in matter is less than the speed of light in a vacuum.
Its propagation direction is perpendicular to both the electric field and the magnetic field.What property of light is responsible for the different colors we observe?Different colors have different wavelengths.Compare photons of X-ray and microwave radiation. Which has:
the longer wavelength?
the greater frequency?
the greater energy?the longer wavelength: microwave radiation
the greater frequency: x-ray radiation
the greater energy: x-ray radiationRank the different types of electromagnetic radiation by wavelength.
Only rank items that are forms of electromagnetic radiation.longest wavelength to shortest wavelength:
a yellow photon
low frequency ultraviolet light
high frequency ultraviolet radiation
gamma ray radiationRank the different types of electromagnetic radiation by frequency.
Only rank items that are forms of electromagnetic radiation.lowest frequency to highest frequency:
long wavelength microwave radiation
short wavelength microwave radiation
an X-ray photonSelect the correct statement comparing other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum to visible light.The infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum has longer wavelengths and lower frequencies.Compared to infrared light, FM radio waves ______.
Compared to visible light, ultraviolet waves _______.
Compared to radio waves, sound waves ___________.> have a longer wavelength.
> have a higher frequency.
> are not a form of electromagnetic radiation.Correctly label the three types of spectra.http://oi67.tinypic.com/23kael1.jpgWhich type of spectrum would you expect to see from neon lights?an emission spectrumWhich source(s) would you expect to emit each of these spectra?http://oi64.tinypic.com/5wcwi0.jpgThe light from an object is passed through a prism so we can observe its spectrum, shown below. What would a graph of this spectrum's intensity versus wavelength look like? (Scroll down to see all four choices.)http://oi66.tinypic.com/2ccx7h5.jpgThe light from an object is passed through a prism so we can observe its spectrum. A graph of the spectrum's intensity versus wavelength is shown below; which of these spectrum images corresponds to this graph? (Scroll down to see all four choices.)http://oi63.tinypic.com/260683t.jpgUse the information in the hint below to place one color in each box ranking the photon energies from the lowest to highest.Lowest energy to highest energy:
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violetHighest energy photons have a ______ frequency, and a _____ wavelength.higher ; lowerLowest energy photons have a ______ frequency, and a _____ wavelength.lower ; higherConsidering the stars in the figure below, which star is hotter?Star N
http://oi66.tinypic.com/2hwh3yh.jpgAn object at 7500 K emits the blackbody spectrum shown here.
This object emits the most light in the _______ part of the visible spectrum.http://oi67.tinypic.com/ephlrp.jpgAn element emits a spectrum thatis unique to that element.Isotopes are atoms of a particular element that contain a different number of _____________.neutronsThe energies, E, for the first few states of an unknown element are shown here in arbitrary units.
A gaseous sample of this element is bombarded by photons of various energies (in these same units). Match each photon to the result of its absorption (or lack thereof) by an n=1 electron.http://oi65.tinypic.com/1zld63r.jpgElectrons in the fourth energy level of an excited atom will emit photons as they fall to lower energy levels. Using the image below, how many different electronic transitions are possible when electrons fall from the fourth energy level (n = 4) to the first energy level (n = 1)?http://oi67.tinypic.com/2cyp4px.jpgCase 1: In an atom, an electron jumps from energy level 3 to energy level 7. During this process,a photon was absorbed by the atom.Compare the energy either emitted or absorbed by the atom in Case 1 to the energy emitted or absorbed in Case 2.
Case 2: An electron jumps from energy level 3 to energy level 9.
For which case is more energy emitted/absorbed?Case 2Given the energy levels of electrons in a hydrogen atom (table), rank the photons emitted by the following electron transitions from longest to shortest wavelength.http://oi68.tinypic.com/1118izs.jpgUse the spectroscopy lab to complete the table with the corresponding lines for each element.http://oi67.tinypic.com/1zfk60m.jpgUse the spectroscopy lab to help you answer the question below.
The emission spectrum of xenon is shown below. Which of the given wavelengths most likely corresponds to the wavelength of the most intense line in xenon's emission spectrum?492 nmUse the Atomic Spectroscopy Lab to answer the following question.
Identify the wavelengths (in nm) of the absorption features in the Sun's spectrum. List them from shortest to longest.430 nm
656 nmUse the Atomic Spectroscopy Lab to answer the following question.
Examine the spectra for the objects in the list below, and classify the type of spectrum produced.Continuous: light bulb
Emission: hydrogen, mercuryUse the spectroscopy lab to label the spectra.http://oi66.tinypic.com/14mdo4g.jpgPlease use the atomic spectroscopy lab to answer the following questions.
Rank the strength of the given hydrogen emission lines from strongest to weakest.656 nm
410 nmUse the spectroscopy lab to answer the following questions.
Based on the spectra shown in the lab, sort the following spectral lines of mercury according to whether they are found in the Sun's spectrum.Found in the sun's spectrum: None.
Not found in the sun's spectrum: 404 nm, 435 nm, 546 nm, 577 nm, 690 nm.Using the above information, is mercury present in the Sun's spectrum shown in this lab?No, mercury cannot be identified in the solar spectrum.Use the spectroscopy lab to answer the following questions.
Based on the spectra shown in the lab, sort the following spectral lines of helium according to whether they are found in the Sun's spectrum.Found in the sun's spectrum: None.
Not found in the sun's spectrum: 403 nm, 471 nm, 492 nm, 588 nm, 668 nmUsing the above information, is helium present in the Sun's spectrum shown in this lab?No, helium cannot be identified in the solar spectrum.Use the spectroscopy lab to answer the following questions.
Based on the spectra shown in the lab, sort the following spectral lines of sodium according to whether they are found in the Sun's spectrum.Found in the sun's spectrum: 590 nm, 589 nm
Not found in the sun's spectrum: 450 nm, 498 nm, 568 nm, 615 nmUsing the above information, is sodium present in the Sun's spectrum shown in this lab?Yes, sodium can be identified in the solar spectrum.An astronomer wants to observe at a particular wavelength, using one of the telescopes below. Rank these telescopes from worst to best angular resolution, based on the diffraction limit. The sizes indicate the diameters of the telescopes.Worst resolution to Best resolution:
personal 6-inch telescope
0.8-meter telescope at McDonald Observatory
2.4-meter telescope at Magdalena Ridge Observatory
Mayall 4-Meter Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory
10-meter telescope at W. M. Keck ObservatoryRank the resolution of the same telescope used at different wavelengths. Rank ALL items.Worst resolution to Best resolution:
radio waves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-raysSeveral radio telescopes are combined into an interferometer in order toimprove the angular resolution compared to a single-dish radio telescope.What property of a reflecting telescope determines its light-gathering (or light-collecting) power?area of mirrorThe Hobby-Eberly Telescope has a diameter of 9.2 m. The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope has a 3.8-m diameter. How many times larger is the light gathering power of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope compared to the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope?5.8614How important are these features for an astronomical telescope, in order from least important to most important?magnification, resolving power, light gathering powerWhich of the following are benefits of using telescopes located on Earth compared to telescopes in space? (You may choose more than one answer.)> Telescopes on Earth cost less to build and operate.
> Earth-based telescopes are easier to repair if something breaks or malfunctions.The image below illustrates the absorption of different wavelengths of light by certain gases in Earth's atmosphere (longer black arrows indicate less absorption).
Using the image above, sort the shown gas molecules into the bins according to wavelengths of light they absorb. Not all molecules will be sorted.http://oi64.tinypic.com/dct2yr.jpgWhat percentage of ultraviolet light at 100 nm will reach a detector on a telescope at sea level?0%The very best atmospheric conditions on Earth result in an angular resolution limit of about 0.4 arcseconds. If an astronomer observes under such conditions at visible wavelengths using a 10-meter telescope, the angular resolution is limited byturbulence in the Earth's atmosphere.Compared with being observed from an optical space-based telescope, a star observed from an optical ground-based telescope would appear to havemore absorption lines.Correctly complete the following statements about the rotational characteristics observed for the planets and moons in our Solar System.
Compared to the direction the Sun rotates, Mercury rotates in _________.
Compared to the direction the Sun rotates, Jupiter rotates in _________.
Compared to the direction the Sun rotates, most of the planets rotate in ________.
Compared to the rotation of their parent planet, most moons revolve about their planets in ________.> the same direction.
> the same direction.
> the same direction.
> the same direction.Rank the objects below by the thickness of their atmospheres, starting with thickest atmosphere first.Thickest Atmosphere to Thinnest or No Atmosphere:
MercuryCompare the four pairs of planets and place each planet in its correctly-matched bin. There is only one correct planet per bin.High density: Mercury
Low density: Jupiter
Close to Sun: Earth
Far from Sun: Jupiter
Large radius: Saturn
Small radius: Earth
High mass: Saturn
Low mass: MercuryPlace the items that are part of the definition of a planet in our Solar System into the bin. Leave the items that are NOT part of the definition of a planet unplaced.Definition of a planet:
> must be in orbit around the Sun
> has enough mass to roughly become spherical
> has cleared the neighborhood around its orbitSeparate the objects listed below into ones that can be found in our Solar System and those that are not found in our Solar System.Found within our Solar System:
natural satellite, planet, asteroids, human
NOT found within our Solar System:
galaxy, planetary nebulaRank the terrestrial planets and the Moon by size (radius) from smallest to largest.the Moon
EarthRank the terrestrial planets and the Moon by mass from least massive to most massive.the Moon
EarthUse the images below of the same region on the Moon to correctly rank the order of crater formation from oldest to youngest.http://oi68.tinypic.com/16huq91.jpgIf these images have the same area, which of these surfaces is geologically older and which is younger?http://oi64.tinypic.com/11ad4jr.jpgVarious processes and events can obscure impact craters that are present on the surface of a moon or planet. Separate the items below into ones that obscure impact craters and those that are not likely to obscure impact craters.Obscure or degrades crater impacts:
Does not obscure or degrade crater impacts:
solar stormsPlace the characteristics expected in a terrestrial Solar System body that has experienced differentiation into the bin. Leave the characteristics that are untrue of differentiated bodies unplaced.Characteristics of a differentiated body:
spherical, metal core, rocky crust, high-density coreThe magnetic field of Venus is __________.
This is attributed to _________.> weaker than the magnetic field of Mercury.
> the 243 day rotation period of Venus.What fact about the magnetic field of Mercury was unexpected?
Which of the following is the major reason the magnetic field of Mercury has this unexpected property?> It is stronger than the magnetic field of Venus.
> part of the core is still moltenWhich of the following are true of the surface of Mercury, and which are false?True:
> permanently shadowed ice craters contain ice
> enormous cliffs cover surface
> has smooth, volcanic plains
> has a huge volcano named Caloris Basin
> impact craters created scarps
> less heavily cratered than most planetsLabel these features on the surface of Mercury.http://oi63.tinypic.com/2mq95hd.jpgChoose the statements that apply to the formation of the cliffs on Mercury.Formation of cliffs on Mercury:
> cooling of the core
> crust bucklingWhich of the following are true of the surface of Venus, and which are false?True:
> only two continental regions
> shield volcanoes and lava flows are common
> dramatic differences in elevation, with high mountain ranges and extreme lowlands
> very old surface with many impact cratersWhich of the following surface features are evidence that volcanic processes occurred on Venus?True:
> shield volcanoes
> large, circular coronae
> extensive lava flows
> subduction zones
> impact cratersWhich of the following statements is true about plate tectonics?The continents on Earth slowly drift on the underlying layer of mantle, driven by large-scale circulation currents deep inside the Earth.Select the correct order of the pressures on the layers of the Earth, from the highest pressure to the lowest pressure.core, mantle, crustThe mantle is the ________ layer of the Earth.
It is _______.> middle
> solidIdentify the pieces of evidence that indicate that liquid water once existed on Mars.> Parallel grooves on the channel floors appear to have been carved by raging waters.
> Large outflow channels formed from sudden outbursts of flash flooding.
> Martian rocks contain jarosite minerals believed to have formed in the presence of water.Photographs obtained by the NASA probe Mariner 9 revealed a vast canyon on Mars that has since been named Valles Marineris. Sort the following statements concerning Valles Marineris as either true or false.True:
- longer than the distance between Los Angeles and San Francisco.
- its widest point is wider than the width of the Mississippi River
- formed as a result of subsurface forces
- encircles two thirds of the entire planet
- created by an asteroid impact
- an artificial irrigation system built by MartiansSort the following physical characteristics of Mars by how they compare to Earth.Greater than Earth: orbital radius
About the same as Earth: rotational period, axial tilt
Less than Earth: planetary radius, atmospheric pressure, magnetic fieldVolcanoes on Mars are enormous becausethe lack of plate tectonics means that volcanoes stay over a "hot spot" for billions of years.Billions of years ago, Mars' global magnetic field was _______, but now it is ________.> stronger
> nonexistentImagine that you have built a terrestrial planet that will have an atmosphere containing the molecules listed below. Your planet is initially located near the Sun. If you move the planet away from the Sun, the planet will cool enough that you can start adding gases, one at a time, to build the atmosphere. Each gas must be added when the planet is cool enough so that its gravity can retain the gas.
Rank the gases in the order that they can be added, with the first to be added at the bottom.hydrogen, water vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxideComplete the following statements, assuming that planets' orbits are unchanged. The same label may be used more than once.
If Mars had formed with the size and mass of Earth, its atmosphere would _________.
If Earth had formed with the size and mass of Mars, its atmosphere would _________.
If Venus had formed with the size and mass of Earth, its atmosphere would _________.
If Earth had formed with the size and mass of Venus, its atmosphere would _________.> be thicker than it is at present.
> be thinner than it is at present.
> be similar to than what it is at present.
> be similar to than what it is at present.The thickness of a terrestrial planet's atmosphere is determined primarily byits mass, temperature, and amount of geological activity.Rank the objects below by the thickness of their atmospheres, starting with thickest atmosphere first.Venus, Earth, Mars, Earth's Moon.Arrange the following gases from highest to lowest concentration in dry air at sea level.nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, methaneA pilot located in Oklahoma City, OK is planning flights to four different locations indicated below. For the following locations, in what direction will she actually end up traveling if she doesn't take the Coriolis effect into account?Flying to a location:
> due west - northwest
> due north - northeast
> due south - southwest
> due east - southeastIn the Southern Hemisphere, missiles traveling over long distances (over 1000 miles) will be deflected to theleft due to the Coriolis effect.In the Northern Hemisphere, low pressure systems draw air ___________ because of ________, which explains ________.> inward and spin counter-clockwise.
> the Coriolis effect
> the direction of rotation for hurricanesBecause of the Coriolis effect, __________ the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.hurricanes rotate in opposite directions inOn smaller scales, the Coriolis effect> does not explain the rotation direction of dust devils.
> does not explain the rotation direction of water down the toilet.The Earth's atmosphere is divided into five distinct layers, each with different physical characteristics. Place the correct name of each layer next to its description.
> This layer begins at an altitude between 500 and 1000 km and is composed mainly of hydrogen gas. While technically not considered outer space, the extremely thin air permits satellites to orbit within this region.
> One of the outer layers of the atmosphere, it occupies the region between 80 and 1000 km. The name means "heat sphere" and temperatures can reach greater than 1000° C (over 1800° F). The NASA Space Shuttle orbited within this region.
> One of the middle layers of the atmosphere, it occupies the region between 50 and 80 km. This layer is the coldest part of the atmosphere where water vapor freezes into ice clouds.
> Consisting of stratified layers of warm and cold air, the region between 12 and 50 km differs from the other layers because the temperature increases with altitude rather than decreasing. Weather balloons can reach this part of the atmosphere.
> The lowest layer of the atmosphere occupies the region between Earth's surface and 12 km. The name comes from the Greek word for "turns" and contains nearly all of the planet's weather. As the altitude increases, both temperature and pressure decrease.> exosphere
> troposphereArrange the layers of Earth's atmosphere according to altitude.Highest Altitude and Lowest Altitude:
> troposphereThe ozone layer in the Earth's atmosphere protects the Earth's surface fromultraviolet radiation.Approximately 80% of infrared (IR) radiation emitted by Earth is trapped by greenhouse gases, causing the warming of Earth's atmosphere known as the greenhouse effect. Even though nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) make up the majority of the atmosphere (~99%), they do not contribute to the greenhouse effect. However, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major contributor. Why does CO2 contribute to the greenhouse effect, while N2 and O2 do not?CO2 is capable of absorbing infrared radiation while N2 and O2 are not.Label the following statements regarding the greenhouse effect as either True or False.> FALSE: The greenhouse effect describes the warming of Earth's atmosphere due to the absorption of ultraviolet radiation by gases in the stratosphere.
> TRUE: Not all gas molecules in the atmosphere contribute to the greenhouse effect.
> TRUE: Certain atmospheric gases, such as CO2 and H2O, absorb infrared radiation emitted from the Earth and trap the heat within the atmosphere.
> FALSE: Visible and ultraviolet radiation are the main contributors to the greenhouse effect since most of the infrared radiation from the Sun is absorbed by oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) in the stratosphere.
> FALSE: Ultraviolet radiation is the main driving force in the greenhouse effect because it comprises the greatest proportion of solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface.The greenhouse effectdoes not generate heat; it slows heat loss to space.The Milankovitch cycles are caused by variations in Earth's orbit and rotation. Label the following orbital and rotational characteristics for Earth and then scroll down to answer the two questions below.http://oi66.tinypic.com/21die75.jpgThe Milankovitch cycles have an effect onthe occurrence of ice ages.What effect would an increase in eccentricity have on the Earth?There would be more variability in the amount of solar irradiation at different points in the Earth's orbit.Sort the statements about greenhouse gases into the bins according to whether they are true or false.TRUE:
> A greenhouse gas emits and absorbs infrared radiation.
> Greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere come from both natural and man-made sources.
> Carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases.
> Emissions from burning fossil fuels has contributed to the increase of greenhouse gases since the industrial revolution.
> Earth is the only planet that has greenhouse gases.
> Oxygen and nitrogen are greenhouse gases.Which of the following processes lead to an increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere? Select all that apply.deforestation & ocean acidificationThe amount of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere has increased markedly since the industrial revolution. Sort the following statements as either causes or effects of increased atmospheric CO2.Causes of increased of CO2:
> internal combustion engines
> burning of fossil fuels
Effects of increased of CO2:
> breaking of ice shelves
> warming of the earth
> increased plant growthCarbon capture and sequestration (CCS) refers to methods for removing industrial CO2 waste from the atmosphere. Many proposed CCS strategies involve capturing, transporting, and depositing CO2 in underground reservoirs. Large-scale underground CCS could be effective at slowing global warming, but there are numerous practical challenges.
Which of the following is not a challenge associated with using underground CCS to get rid of CO2 waste?CO2 is extremely flammable and could cause an explosion.Methane makes up about 10% of greenhouse gas emissions, but contributes disproportionally more to global warming because methaneis much more effective at trapping heat compared to other greenhouse gases.The greenhouse effect is a natural process that maintains the Earth's temperature within a range that sustains life. Which of the following statements accurately describes the cause of the enhanced greenhouse effect?Burning fossil fuels causes an increase in the amount of atmospheric greenhouse gases, such as CO2, resulting in the enhanced greenhouse effect.Which of the following is a major reason that Venus has such a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere today, as compared to the atmosphere of the Earth?Venus is extremely arid.Venus had a runaway greenhouse effect but Earth does not becauseVenus has more carbon dioxide in its atmosphere.Determine if the following statements apply to the atmosphere of Earth or Venus.Earth:
> atmosphere is mainly nitrogen
> mild greenhouse effect
> atmosphere is mainly carbon dioxide
> temperature too high for liquid water
> clouds shroud entire planet
> sky has a yellowish tint due to absorption of sunlight
> highest atmospheric pressure among terrestrial planetsSort the items below into the appropriate bin according to whether they describe the atmosphere of Earth, Mars, or both Earth and Mars.Earth:
> atmosphere in 78% nitrogen
> strongest greenhouse effect
> atmosphere is 95% carbon dioxide
> pressure too low for liquid water
> dust storms in atmosphere can engulf entire planet
> sky appears brownish due to dust content of atmosphere
Both Earth and Mars:
> some of the gas in the atmosphere came from geological activityIdentify the pieces of evidence that indicate that liquid water once existed on Mars.> Large outflow channels formed from sudden outbursts of flash flooding.
> High mesa islands in drainage channels indicate they were carved and shaped by erosion and depositional processes.
> Martian rocks contain jarosite minerals believed to have formed in the presence of water.Which of the following statements are true of the polar caps on Mars, and which are false?TRUE:
> northern and southern caps are different sizes
> composed at least partly of frozen carbon dioxide
> do not change during the Martian year
> melting of polar ice caps causes ocean levels to rise on MarsSort each of the following terms by whether they are properties of Mars' atmosphere, Venus' atmosphere, or both.Mars: thin, changes seasonally
Both: most carbon dioxide
Venus: very thick, clouds of sulfuric acid, opaqueWhere does evidence clearly suggest that significant amounts of water can be found on Mars today?Forms of water present on Mars today:
> frozen in polar ice caps
> layer of subsurface ice below ground
NOT present on Mars today:
> vast ocean of salty water
> streams and rivers flowing through gulleys and river deltas
> plentiful water vapor in dense, thick atmospherePlace each item in the bin according to the planet it describes.Jupiter- largest planet, the four Galilean moons orbit this planet, has the largest moon in the Solar System, strongest magnetic field
Saturn - most conspicuous rings, lowest mean density, has a moon with a dense nitrogen atmosphere
Uranus - most highly inclined rotation axis, most extreme seasons
Neptune - farthest from SunSort the items below into the appropriate planet bin according to the atmospheric structure and weather of the planets. (Place all of the items into the bins.)Jupiter - long-lived, gigantic storms
Neptune - deep blue color
Both Neptune & Saturn - display alternating dark and light bands
Both Uranus & Neptune - atmospheric color derived from methaneCompared to the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn, the interiors of Uranus and Neptunehave rocky cores that make up a greater fraction of their total mass.Sort the following statements into those which describe Earth's magnetic field, Jupiter's magnetic field, or both planets' magnetic fields.Earth - smaller magnetosphere, most trapped particles come from solar wind
Jupiter - features a torus of charged particles originating from a moon, stronger magnetic field
Both Earth & Jupiter - magnetic field is generated by an inner layer of electrically conducting fluid, charged particles trapped in the magnetic field enter the atmosphere near the poles, causing displays of auroraSort the following statements about Jupiter according to whether they are true or false.True - takes more than a year to orbit the sun, has an interior of mostly liquids and gases, has a diameter larger than Earth's, exhibits differential rotation in its atmosphere, has rings circling it
False - is closer to the sun than the Earth is, is denser than the Earth, has the same number of moons as the Earth, is less massive than the Earth, has a weaker magnetic field than that of the Earth, has a Great White SpotThe Great Red Spot is _______ on Jupiter
that is about the size of ___________.> a storm
> a large terrestrial planetIn addition to being shaped by the solar wind, Jupiter's magnetosphere is affected byplasma that originates from volcanic activity on Io.Jupiter's internal heat source is connected tothermal energy leftover from planet formation.Convection in Jupiter's atmosphere results instripe-like patterns of high-pressure zones and low-pressure belts.Compared to Jupiter, Saturn's layer of liquid molecular hydrogen is proportionally __________.
Compared to Saturn, Jupiter's layer of metallic hydrogen is proportionally __________.> thicker.
> thicker.Compared to Jupiter, the cloud layers in Saturn's atmosphere are proportionallythicker.Which of these items describe the atmosphere of Saturn, the atmosphere of Jupiter, or both?Saturn's atmosphere - proportionally less helium, fewest obvious features in visible light
Jupiter's atmosphere - thinner atmosphere, most colorful in visible light
Both - differential rotation, oval storm systems, composed of mostly hydrogen and heliumSaturn's internal heat source is connected toliquid helium precipitation in its atmosphere.Sort the following statements about Uranus according to whether they are true or false.True - takes more than a year to orbit the sun, is less dense than the Earth, is more massive than the Earth, has more moons than the Earth
False - has a diameter about the same as the Earth, is closer to the Sun than Jupiter, rotates in the same direction as the rest of the planets, has no ringsUranus is unusual because ____________.
This is probably because ____________.> its rotation is axis is tilted 98° to its orbital plane.
> it underwent at least one major impact with another Solar System body.Sort the following statements about Neptune according to whether they are true or false.True - takes more than a year to orbit the Sun, jovian planet, has rings, has more moons than the Earth, diameter larger than the Earth's
False - denser than the Earth, less massive than the Earth, axis of rotation is most similar to Uranus', closer to the Sun than UranusSort the descriptions below according to which jovian planet(s) they describe.Jupiter - rings discovered by Voyager spacecraft
Saturn - rings observed by Galileo with his telescope
Jupiter & Saturn - (leave blank)
Uranus - rings discovered by stellar occultation
All jovian planets - shepherd moons orbit with rings, rings composed of icy particles and/or dustPlanetary ring systems can result from the destruction of a moon orbiting within the Roche limit of a planet. Choose the statement that best describes how a moon can be destroyed within this limit.The forces binding the moon together are exceeded by the tidal forces from the planet.Select the true statements about the rings of Saturn. (Leave the false statements unplaced.)Facts about Saturn's rings:
- made predominately of water ice
- contain shepherd moons
- first observed by Galileo Galilei
- easily visible to small telescopesWhich of these are true of planetary ring systems, and which are false?True - typically lie inside the planet's Roche limit, total mass in the rings is tiny compared to the planet, small shepherd moons can orbit within rings
False - rings form at the same time as planets and are always stable over billions of years, particles in the rings are microscopic in size