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40 terms

The Brain

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Three parts of the Brain
Hindbrain (rhombencephalon), Midbrain (mesencephalon), & Forebrain (prosencephalon)
Hindbrain (rhombencephalon)
to parts Myelencephalon, Metencephalon
Myelencephalon
houses the medula oblongata
Medula Oblongata
where the spinal cord merges into the brain
Metencephalon
two parts Cerebellum (little brain), Pons
Cerebellum (little brain)
regulation of limb movement, balance, and posture
Pons
Bridge to join the two hemispheres of the cerebellum; connects the cerebellum with the cerebrum and with the spinal cord
Midbrain (Mesencephalon)
Connects the forebrain and the hindbrain; aids in regulating and coordinating movements
Forebrain (Prosencephalon)
two parts; Diencephalon, Telencephalon
Diencephalon
two parts; Thalmus, hypothalmus
Thalamus
relay and integration center for sensory information
Hypothalmus
Controls visceral activities, water balance, temperature, sleep and metabolic functions
Telencephalon
largest part of the human brain; Cerebrum
Cerebrum
Cerebral hemispheres (2), longitudinal fissures
Lobes of the Cerebrum
Frontal, Parietal, temporal, occipital
Frontal Lobe
Important areas: Primary Motor Strip and Boca's speech area.
Primary Motor Strip
Precentral gyrus. Area associated with common motor pathway to skeletal muscles. Works opposite side of body.
Boca's speech area
Left inferior frontal gyrus. Responsible for the motor movements required for speech
Paiental Lobe
Primary sensory strip. Left angular gyrus: comprehension of written words. works opposites side of the body.
Occipital Lobe
Contains the primary visual area and visual association areas.
Temporal Lobe
Cortical center for hearing, Wernicke's area
Wernicke's area
responsible for the integration of auditory and visual stimuli. generates input to Broca's area by way of the arcuate fasciculus
Brain Stem
term used to refer to the diencephalon, mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata
white matter of the cerebrum
subcortical white matter consists of 3 fibers: Projection, Assosiation and Commissural fibers
Projection Fibers
afferent and efferent fibers transmitting impulses to and from the cerebral cortex
Association Fibers
interconnect various cortical regions in the same hemisphere: short fibers and long fibers
short fibers
connect cells in adjacent convolutions
long fibers
connect cortical regions with in the same hemisphere. Acuate fasciculus: connects wernicke's area to Broca's area
Commisual Fibers
interconnects the corresponding cortical regions of the two hemispheres. (Corpus Callosum)
Left vs. Right Hemisphere
Left: Language, Math, Handedness, Analytical thought
Right: Art, Music, Creativity
Both: Motor and Sensory control
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Produced by the choroid plexus. Flows through a system of ventricles: lateral (2) > 3rd ventricle > 4th ventricle
ventricles
fluid filled cavities in the brain. protects boinsy, helps the endocrine system with transportation of hormones
Basal Ganglia
Masses of grey matter in the cerebrum. regulates complex motor functions: posture, locomotion, balance, inhibitory.
Inhibitory
decreases muscle tone. coordination of the motor behavior of muscle groups.
Functions of the brain
Cerebral Cortex, Cerebellum, Brain Stem, Hypothalamus, Thalamus
Cerebral Cortex
Thought, Voluntary movement, Language, Reasoning, Perception
Cerebellum
Movement, Balance, Posture
Brain Stem
Breating, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure
Hypothalamus
Emotions, Hunger, Thirst, Cicadian Rhythms, Body Temperature
Thalamus
Sensory Integration, Motor Integration