complete study guide for midterm exam for art history one for Sullivan College of Technology and Design
Why must we be careful in considering the meaning and /or historical value of some Agean artifacts? (Such as the so-called "Snake Goddess" from the textbook)
It was 'reconstructed' in a way that relied heavily on assumption and imagination without evidence.
The Minoans and the Mycenaeans were two cultures that occupied the region known as the Aegean. Which great culture arose from them?
Explain one way that the style of Aegean art differs from the Egyptian:
Agean art is more curvy, is fully in profile, is more casual in style and is more graceful.
List one purpose for a funerary mask:
1. covers the face of the deceased 2. represents the features of the deceased (realistic or symbolic) 3. is a show of respect for the deceased.
Is the funerary mask seen here meant to be a realistic portrait of the deceased person?
no it is very simple and stylized.
Give the name for this mythical creature that features a human face, a bull's body (or lion's body) and wings:
What purpose did lamassu sculptures serve?
to intimidate and impress all visitors.
What was supposedly symbolized by showing the Assyrian King as a killer of lions?
Power, leadership ability, and super-human strength.
What type of carving can be seen on the Dying Lioness image?
Name two ways in which Etruscan burial urns could be personalized to represent the deceased:
They were shaped in a basic human form. They were painted realistically. They had inlaid eyes. They had human hair wigs. They could also have personal items alongside them.
Reclining Couple Sarcophagus
List out two things that we can learn about Etruscan culture based on this sarcophagus:
1. relaxed attitude regarding death. 2. husbands and wives could dine together in public. 3. Women spoke in public. 4. They have a loving attitude. etc.
What is the etruscan sarcophagus made from?
Fired terra cotta clay
What is unusual about terra cotta as a sarcophagus material?
It is fragile, hard to work with and would need a very large, specially designed oven/kiln to fire it.
The Etruscans were the ancient people who occupied the region from which what great culture would arise?
Commemorates Olympic foot race
Name one of the two most common types of color schemes seen on Greek vases:
1. Black figure 2. Red figure
Explain what "slip" is in terms of pottery making:
It is dry clay particles mixed with water and ash to form a paint-like consistency
What is a burin?
a sharp tool for scratching details into the slip of greek pottery.
The unswept floor mosaic makes use of what artistic effect to make the discarded objects look three dimensional?
Explain what Trompe Loeil means
A method of illusionism. To fool the eye.
List two qualities of archaic sculpture:
1. Stiff, formal, rigid. 2.One foot forward stance. 3.expressionless face. 4. Archaic smile. 5. Anatomy is not accurate. etc..
What is the term used to describe sculptures of generalized, idealized young men?
What is meant by the term "contapposto"
"counterpositioning" a relaxed stance with the weight of the body on one foot.
For what reason are the eyes on some greek figures are carved out?
to allow for inlaid eyes to be inserted
What is the term for a generalized figure of a young woman, usually clothed,as seen in greek sculpture?
For what reason(s) were female sculptures not shown nude in ancient Greek styles?
Only slave girls could be shown nude, and were generally not large scale sculptures. Married women and girls of good families were rarely seen in public at all. Nuditiy was considered highly innappropriate for such women.
Aphrodite of Knidos
What is it about this sculpture that makes it an important turning point in Greek sculpture, but also in sculpture in general?
It is the first depiction of a nude goddess. It popularizes the nude female figure which will continue to be a major theme in art for the future.
The Winged Victory of Samothrace
What is the Winged Victory meant to commemorate?
A naval victory at Rhodes
Dying Gaul or Dying Trumpeter
List two characteristics of Expressionistic sculpture:
1.Shows emotion in face or body. 2. Is super realistic. 3. Conveys the concept of movement. 4.
Give the name for the culture that inhabited the area of modern day Tuscany prior to the founding of Rome:
Rome originally had this type of governmental model, meaning citizens could vote:
What is symbolized by the bare feet of the Augustus Ceasar sculpture?
That he is deceased and has been deified.
What is symbolized by the baby on the back of a dolphin seen in the Augustus Ceasar sculpture?
His divine pedigree as a decendant of Aneas and Aphrodite.
What impression is the viewer supposed to get of Augustus Ceasar based on the symbolism in his sculpture?
Confidence, ability to lead, distinguished military career, politician, divine heritage, youth, strenght, etc..
How did the bronze Marcus Aurelius statutes escape being melted down during the middle ages?
They were mistaken for Emperor Constantine
What was supposedly symbolized by a person who could control a horse with one hand?
Power, skill, confidence and leadership
Laocoon and Sons
Who sculpted the Laocoon and Sons
Three Greek sculptors
Who comissioned the Laocoon and Sons
What are catacombs?
Underground storage spaces or networks of underground tunnels beneath Roman buildings and cities.
For what sorts of purposes were catacombs used?
Cool storage, secret meetings, burials and sometimes illicit activities.
buon fresco means
the good, or true fresco; a method of painting onto wet plaster.
fresco secco means
a method of painting on dry plaster, usually to add very bright, expensive colors and/or gold leaf.
How are early Christian paintings typically different from Roman frescos?
They are simpler, less realistic, flat, 2D, and tend to lack perspective or realistic background. They focus on readability not realism.