Biology 121 Chapter 12
Terms in this set (92)
The study of organisms in their environments
-study of how organisms interact with each other and with their environment
-provides valuable goods and services that benefit human society
Ecologists make verifiable observations using what kind of approach?
What type of ecology science may be conducted in the field or in the lab?
What can inform the philosophy and social movement of environmentalism?
A broad philosophy and social movement that seeks to maintain environmental quality
-ecology is distinct from this
What provides the basis for understanding environmental problems?
The science of ecology
What are the 5 levels of ecology?
One of the levels of ecology that focuses on the ways that organism adapt to their environments through physiology and behavior
One of the levels of ecology that is concerned with the factors that affect population size, growth, and density
One of the levels of ecology that focus on interactions among species
One of the levels of ecology that is concerned with questions of energy flow and chemical cycling
All the life living in a particular area together with all the nonliving components such as air, sunlight, wind, and water
One of the levels of ecology where ecologists can study the influence of energy and matter on organisms across the biosphere
What is the global ecosystem?
What are the two main processes that the dynamics of every ecosystem depends on?
Energy and Chemical Cycling
The biosphere includes what two factors?
Abiotic and Biotic Factos
The living organisms of an ecosystem constitute its what?
Nonliving components of an ecosystem
-these have a profound effect on the life within an ecosystem
-examples include the supply of energy and nutrients
What is the most important abiotic factor?
Most ecosystems on Earth are powered by what type of energy via sunlight?
The availability of what type of nutrients can impact plant growth
-examples are nitrogen and phosphorous
Wind, water availability, temperature, and fire are all examples of what?
what varies in density, dispersion, and survivorship curves?
What are the two important ecological measurements?
Population density and dispersion
The number of members of a species per unit area or volume of the habitat
How individuals are spaced within a habitat
(uniform or random)
What can predict changes in population size?
How is population size calculated?
The number of births minus the number of deaths
Occurs when the population size of each new generation is a multiple of the previous generation and occurs under ideal conditions
-requires unlimited resources
In real-world populations, there are what type of factors that are environmental constraints that places a cap on the size of a population
The maximum population size that can survive in an environment
What type of growth occurs when the size of a population grows rapidly until it nears its carrying capacity for that environment?
-includes limiting factors
What are the two broad categories for limiting factors?
Density-dependent factors and density-independent factors
Limiting factos whose influence is affected by population and density
ex.) competition and density
Type of limiting factor that is unrelated to population density
ex.) weather and environmental disturbance
Is human population growth exponential or logistic?
What occurs when two or more species rely on similar limiting resources?
-it is mutually harmful
What states that if the resources required by two species are too similar, they cannot coexist?
Competitive Exclusion Principle
What is a form of interspecies interaction in which both species benefit?
-often occurs among species that are symbiotic: living in close physical association with one another
Interaction in which a predator species kills and eats a prey species
ex.) cheetah and impala
Eating of plant parts by an animal
Type of organism that lives on or in (but does NOT kill) a host
-it obtains nutrients
ex.) a mouse flea
ex.) chestnut blight
What describes multiple trophic structures?
-it interconnects multiple food chins
What describes the feeding relationships within a community?
What two factors describe the transfer of organic material from one trophic level to the next?
Food chains (a simplified description of one part of the trophic structure) and food webs
The tendency of toxins to become concentrated in a food chain
Species diversity includes what two factors?
1. Species Richness (same number of species)
ex.) 4 of the same trees in a forest
2. Relative Abundance
A species that has a disroportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance
-can drive patterns of species richness and diversity
-the declination of sea otters but increase of sea urchins
Communities are rarely static, and disturbance is followed by what?
Occurs when an area has been rendered virtually lifeless with no soil
Occurs after a disturbance that kills much of the life in an area but leaves the soil intact
Ex.) a giant fire destroying a forest
After a disturbance, an area will be reoccupied by a series of species. What type of succession may take hundreds or thousands of year to reoccur?
When non-native organisms are introduced to a community they can spread rapidly becoming what type of species?
-disrupt ecosystems as both predators and competitors
-leading cause of extinctions of local populations
Ex.) Nutria Rats in Louisiana
Ecologists may implement what type of control, which is the intentional release of a natural enemy
Ex.) The stingless waps toward borers
-can have unintended consequences
A method that utilizes several strategies such as biological control, pest-resistant crop varieties, etc.
Integrated Pest Management
What three diversities are a part of biological diversity?
1. Genetic diversity
2. Species diversity
3. Ecological diversity
What type of biodiversity refers to the collection of genes within a population?
Severely reducing genetic variation allows what to happen to population?
Makes the population less able to adapt to a changing environment
What type of diversity refers to the number of different species?
Irreversible loss of all populations of a species
-estimation that HALF of all living plant and animal species will be extinct by the end of this century
What type of biodiversity refers to the variety of ecosystems found on Earth?
The degradation of ecosystems threatens what type of services?
-benefits that ecosystems provide to people such as waste decomposition, water cycling, nutrient cycling, food production, and recreation
Single greatest threat to biodiversity
-ex.) forestry, mining, and dam construction
Negative effect of biodiversity that occurs when species are taken faster than they can naturally replenish lead to a loss of biodiversity
-ex.) hunting, fishing, and logging
An increasingly grave threat to biodiversity
-these species have no natural predators, causing the extinction of competitors or prey species
Ex.) brown tree snakes killing many bird species
A part of the air and water the contributes to biodiversity loss at the local, regional, and global levels
Negative effect of biodiversity that impacts biodiversity at both local and global scales
-occurs due to changes in rainfall patterns, disruption of seasonal Patterns, rising temperature, and ocean acidification
Ex.) coral bleaching
Global Climate Change
As CO2 levels rise in the atmosphere, what percent of the excess CO2 is absorbed by the oceans, lowering the pH of the ocean
A type of ecological community that occupies a particular zone
What two measures of climate are the distribution of biomes depended on?
Temperature and Rainfall
Type of biome that are identified primarily by the types of vegetation found within them
Found at the northernmost and southernmost parts of the Earth
Type of biome that is characterized by dryness, bitter cold temperatures, high winds, and permafrost
Forest biomes are varied by what?
-all relatively found in wet areas
Type of forest biome that is dominated by cone-bearing evergreens
Type of forest biome that occurs in wet, warm climates near the equator
Type of forest biome that occurs in regions of hot summers, cold winters, and relatively frequent rain
(Where we live)
Temperature Broadleaf Forests
Type of biome that are found in regions with cold winters, low rainfall, and periodic drought
Type of biome that is found in coastal areas where ocean currents produce mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers
Type of biome that is warm, fairly dry climates that primarily contain grasses with scattered trees
Freshwater biomes include what three topics?
1. Lakes and Ponds
2. Rivers and Streams
Marine biomes generally have water that is how much percent of salt by weight
Type of biome that includes coral reefs, the pelagic realm (which has photic and aphotic zones), and deep sea
Where land and fresh water meet the ocean are what type of biomes?
Intermediate Aquatic zones
Convert solar energy to chemical energy via photosynthesis
Herbivores that eat primary producers
Carnivores that eat primary consumers
Top-level predators are what type of consumers
As trophic levels increase, what happens to the available energy at each transfer?
Less energy is available
The total amount of living material in an ecosystem
Type of production that measures the rate at which solar energy is converted to biomass
-different ecosystems have different rates of this