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81 terms

Geography Exam #3

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Monoculture
Production of one crop
Intensive Rice Cultivation
Done by hand, wet rice is the most important source of food in South, East and Southeast Asia
Mixed Farming
Crop produced mostly to feed livestock
Large-scale Commercial Grain Production
Found in a few countries U.S, Canada, Argentina, Australia, Russia, Ukraine, and France, mostly in regions that are to dry for mixed crops and livestock
Plantation
A large farm that specializes in the commercial production of one or two crops
Transhumance
Seasonal movement of people with their livestock; typically from high pastures in the summer to lower valley/pastures in the winters.
Agribusiness
A large scale farming business that produces, processes, and distributes agricultural products.
Natural Resource
Something that is useful and and that exists independent of human activity.
Cartel
An organization formed to control the market for a particular commodity, usually by restricting supply
Temperature Inversion
A layer in the atmosphere in which relatively warm air lies above cooler air limiting vertical circulation and trapping pollutants near the surface
Primate City
Is the largest city in the country, is approximately twice the size of the second-largest city in the country, and is often the capital city of the country
Site
Natural conditions and absolute location
Situation
relative location, particularly in terms of things important to a society.
Leapfrogging
Scattered suburban growth, rather than a continuous and contiguous spreading.
Gentrification
Moving poor people out of the inner city and having middle income and upper income people moving in and restoring the old homes.
Central Business District
The "downtown" older, business center of a metropolitan area.
Feedlots for Fattening
Place where cattle go before they ago to a slaughter house, after ranchers sell them.
Characteristics of Mediterranian Agriculture
Hot, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. Most of the areas are mountainous or hilly. Most crops are for human consumption-olives, grapes, fruits, wines, and vegetables.
Effects of value added by manufacturing principle on dairying
By Transforming milk into other dairy products (butter, cheese, evaporated milk, etc) it becomes lighter and less perishable making more valuable than the raw material (the orginal milk) and produces wealth.
Privatization
In Eastern Europe, the former Soviet republics, and China, what land ownership policy or practice has done the most for increasing production?
Whether product is consumed on or off the farm
What is the most important distinction for dividing the world into agricultural regions?
Reasons agricultural practices arise in particular regions
limited knowledge of alternatives, characteristics of the physical environment, and distinctive cultural traits
Commercial Agriculture and Subsistance Agriculture
Mediterranean agriculture, shifting cultivation, and pastoral nomadism are all forms of which of the two major divisions of agriculture?
Plantation and Subsistence Agriculture
Which type of agriculture is found primarily in developing countries?
Humid Low-Latitude
Shifting cultivation is most commonly found in which climate region?
Climate
What is the most important reason why most people in North China grow crops other than wet rice?
Cultural Factors, Site Factors, and Situation Factors
The type of agriculture practiced on a commercial farm depends on which factors or practices?
Delivery Cost, Perishability, and Proximity to market
According to the von Thünen model, for what reasons are market-oriented gardens and milk producers were located in the first ring?
Commercial Grain
The United States, Russia, France, and Canada are the four large-scale producers of what type of crop?
Events lessening effect of Thomas Malthus's Theory
New Crops, incresed productivity, transportation and storage, technology
Chicken
Of al the domesticated animals, which is the most efficient transformer of grain into edible meat?
ended discrimination against farmers, end civil wars, stop subsidizing urban pop, reform landholding system
The estimated undernourished 500 million people on earth (1991) could be fed if their homelands did what?
U.S, Russia and China
What are the three large countries with coal reserves that will last a long time?
Middle East
Which part of the world has the greatest proved oil reserves in the world? -- be able to locate it on a world map.
Culture
The Native Americans of the southeastern U.S. formerly placed a high value on yaupon, a species of holly used in ritual. Which factor was most important in making yaupon a valuable resource to them?
There will be added incentive to find new deposits of the mineral
If the supply of a mineral is reduced due to excessive mining for it, what will happen in that mining industry?
Affects of NIMBY phenomenon on landfills for trash in U.S
Most people agree that land fills are needed, because the number of them has declined to fewer than 1,800 in 2002, because stricter regulations prevent new ones from opening. Old landfills were closed in many areas because of ground contamination. As land fills run out of space most people support the creation of a new facility, but have the attitude not in their back yard or area.
Coal
What is the main energy resource available for industry in the U.S. and Canada?
Oil Shale and Tar Sandstones
What are some of the unconventional sources of oil?
pluses and minuses of coal as energy source
Pluses are its abundant, provide 400 years of proven reserves, and provide U.S. with electricity.
Minuses are air pollution, land and water impacts or damages, and limited uses because it is bulky, and a solid incapable for use in engines of buses, cars, and trucks.
1/3 of Europe
What part of the electricity in Europe is produced by nuclear power?
Pluses and minuses of Hydroelectric Power
Pluses: abundant, sufficient, clean, and inexpensive. The building of the dam means that there will be flood control, drinking water, irrigation, and recreation.
Minuses: loss of farmland and animal habitat, the dam could flood usable land and displace people, it will alter aquatic life, and political restrictions sometimes apply.
Major Atmospheric Pollutants
Carbon Dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates
Cultural Values, Level of Technology, Econonomic System
Which elements of a society contribute to the definition of a natural resource?
High demand but low supply
Applying the principle of supply and demand, what is likely to be true of wheat in Saudi Arabia?
Substitutablity
Which business practices are important in stabilizing resources prices and limiting problems caused by resource scarcity?
How hydrothermal energy is formed or utilized
Earth's internal heat in volcanic areas is used to produce steam to drive turbines.
Wood
In most developing countries, the largest proportion of energy is supplied through what means?
Coal
For electric generation in the USA, what is the main energy resource?
Natural Gas
What is the most common energy source for home use in the USA, especially for heat and hot water?
oil (gasoline and diesal fuel)
Nearly all transportation systems rely on which energy source?
Coal
The US is the leading producer of which energy fuel?
3/4 or 75%
North America and Europe account for nearly what portion of the energy consumption?
Results of Oil Crisis of 1970's
An oil embargo imposed on the U.S. from OPEC, caused gasoline supplies to dwindle in relatively developed countries, and prices at U.S. pumps soared. Another oil crises followed in 1979 as a result of a revolution in Iran, this caused rapid price increase, and abruptly halted the rise in energy use in the United States and elsewhere. This caused severe economic problems, long lines at the gas pump, some customers waiting all night for gas.
Off Shore (under the ocean floor)
Where would a newly discovered conventional oil reserve most likely be found today?
Coal
Sulfur oxides are a major component of acid rain; they come primarily from the burning of what?
Solar
What is the best potential source of energy for the world's energy needs in the future?
Hydrocarbons
Smog is created by chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere involving N0X, sunlight, and what?
Dissolved Oxygen Concentration
The presence in water of what indicates the degree of health of a stream or lake?
Agriculture (raising crops and livestock)
What is the leading consumer and polluter of water in the USA?
positive impacts of forest on ecosystem
biodiversity, absorbing carbon dioxide, storing carbon, releasing oxygen, reduces erosion, place for habitat and recreation.
Substained Yield Management
What strategy can maintain the productivity of a resource even as it is being used?
Petrochemicals
What critical resource is an important type of ingredient in almost all plastics?
Spread of Agriculture
Most of the forest land that has disappeared from Earth over the last few centuries was due to what cause?
Structure of Urban Hierarchy
Like a pyramid with many small towns at the bottom and the number of towns decreases as they get larger so that the largest city is at the top of the pyramid
Multiple nuclei
Which urban model best describes the contemporary expansion of American metropolitan areas?
Heat Islands
Due to their modification of the atmosphere, cities have been referred to as what?
surrounded by greenbelts
What is the distinguishing characteristic of a garden city?
Radiant City
Brasilia is described as what type of city other than a forward capital city?
Urbanization
What is the term for the process whereby an increasing percentage of people live in an urban area?
Washington D.C- Boston in the USA
Define the location of the first megalopolis in the world to be identified as that type of conurbation.
Central Business District (CBD)
What is the area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered called?
reasons land values are high in CBD
Its high accessibility, competition for limited space, and the agglomeration effect
Commuting
Since so few people live in the CBD, urban areas are characterized by a high degree of what?
moderate to large amount of private land surround the house
Why were people attracted to move to the suburbs in the USA?
increase energy efficiency and lower pollution
What are the benefits of public transportation?
Multiple Nuclei Model
Which urban settlement model does the diagram on page 3 best illustrate?
Nonbasic Sector
What is the region to which any city provides services and upon which it draws for its needs called?
Conurbations
When several cities grow and merge together into vast urban areas, what are they called?
Incorporation
Process of defining a city territory and establishing a government
Nonpoint pollution
It occurs as water moves across the land or through the ground and picks up natural and human-made pollutants, which can then be deposited in lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters, and even groundwater. The water that carries nonpoint-source pollution may originate from natural processes such as rainfall or snowmelt, or from human activities such as crop irrigation or lawn maintenance.