Terms in this set (62)
A machine for spinning with more than one spindle at a time, patented by James Hargreaves in 1770.
The name given to a spinning frame, when water power is used to drive it. Both are credited to Richard Arkwright who patented the technology in 1768. It was based on an invention by Thomas Highs and the patent was later overturned.
Invented the Spinning Jenny.
Invented the Water Frame.
Invented the cotton gin, a machine used to separate cotton from it's seeds. This sped up production of cotton and increased the demand of slaves to work on plantations.
Parts (components) that are, for practical purposes, identical. They are made to specifications that ensure that they are so nearly identical that they will fit into any assembly of the same type. One such part can freely replace another, without any custom fitting (such as filing).
A new source of power developed through Industrialization, being used to transmit power to machines that produced textiles, metal products, and other goods. First introduced by Great Britain, this core innovation led to further inventions that increased Europe's economic advantage over most other parts of the world.
Invented the steam engine in 1765 which used coal to make steam which powered machines.
A ship that is propelled by a steam engine, began to be used during the Industrial Age.
The action or system of rotating crops.
A sowing device that positions seeds in the morning and then covers them.
An inland waterway capable of accommodating seagoing ships
The basic material from which a product is made. Europeans would sell manufactured goods to other societies without the technology to produce them in return for cheap foods and raw materials.
A natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah.
2nd Industrial Revolution
Occurred in the late 19th to 20th centuries, was another great leap forward in technology and society. New innovations in steel production, petroleum and electricity led to the introduction of public automobiles and airplanes. In this lesson, learn about the key inventions that spurred this revolution.
Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.
A steel-making process, now largely superseded, in which carbon, silicon, and other impurities are removed from molten pig iron by oxidation in a blast of air in a special tilting retort
Farmers were forced to search for jobs in cities after the government stopped letting British farmers work on government lands.
Protestant Work Ethic
The view that a person's duty is to achieve success through hard work and thrift, such success being a sign that one is saved.
(1868-1912) Reform era in Japan, when Japan was ruled by the emperor Meiji Tenno, marked by the modernization and westernization of the country.
Otto Von Bismarck
A Prussian Prime Minister began to work with a parliament and extended the vote to all men.
Began in the late 18th century to 1914 in which a new kind of technology and economy arose in a few parts of the world such as western Europe. Japan and Russia had their own a bit later. Industrial countries gained power advantages and huge economic leads. Weaponry, steamships, and developments in communications were mass-produced. This revolution led to many changes such in all aspects of life- affecting work, politics, society, and more.
The process by which an economy is transformed from primarily agricultural to one based on the manufacturing of goods. Industrialization also involved new forms of work organization, particularly massing and disciplining labor within a factory system.
A business or manufacturing activity carried on in a person's home.
Putting Out System
Domestic system, also called Putting-out System, production system widespread in 17th-century western Europe in which merchant-employers "put out" materials to rural producers who usually worked in their homes but sometimes laboured in workshops or in turn put out work to others.
The system of manufacturing that began in the 18th century with the development of the power loom and the steam engine and is based on concentration of industry into large establishments
Division of Labor
The assignment of different parts of a manufacturing process or task to different people in order to improve efficiency.
A series of workers and machines in a factory by which a succession of identical items is progressively assembled.
A period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity that occurred during the 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe. In this lesson, learn the timeline, causes, effects and major inventions that spurred this shift in production.
Wealthy farmers bought land from small farmers, then benefited from economies of scale in farming huge tracts of land. The enclosure movement led to improved crop production, such as the rotation of crops.
A city of northwest England east-northeast of Liverpool. Founded on the site of Celtic and Roman settlements, it was first chartered in 1301. Greater Manchester is highly industrialized. The Manchester Ship Canal (completed in 1894) affords access for oceangoing vessels.
A large city in northwestern England; its port is the country's major outlet for industrial exports.
Wealth in the form of money or other assets owned by a person or organization or available or contributed for a particular purpose such as starting a company or investing.
The skills, knowledge, and experience possessed by an individual or population, viewed in terms of their value or cost to an organization or country.
The protection or promotion of the interests of consumers.
A company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
An individual, group, or organization that holds one or more shares in a company, and in whose name the share certificate is issued.
Is the market in which shares of publicly held companies are issued and traded either through exchanges or over-the-counter markets.
The exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.
The Wealth of Nations
A book written by Adam Smith that started capitalism and ideas of laissez-faire.
Father of capitalism who wrote "The Wealth of Nations" (1776) that provided the foundation for most economic systems today.
An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. There is no interference by outside forces in the economic system- an "invisible hand" guides what happens.
"Hands-off," government and business are separate.
John Stuart Mill
The most influential English language philosopher of the nineteenth century. He was a naturalist, a utilitarian, and a liberal, whose work explores the consequences of a thoroughgoing empiricist outlook.
Moral theory that focuses on the results, or consequences, of our actions, and treats intentions as irrelevant.
Political movement with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man.
An imagined place or state of things in which everything is perfect.
A German theorist that had focused on human perfectability from the Enlightenment to 1848. He declared capitalists evil and that workers were exploited and their low wages were unjust. His vision was too have a heaven on earth where there were no classes and full freedom would be achieved.
German socialist leader and political philosopher, in England from 1849. He collaborated with Marx on The Communist Manifesto (1848).
The Communist Manifesto
Written by Karl Marx, introduced the political theory of communism.
Means of Production
(especially in a political context) The facilities and resources for producing goods.
A political theory developed by Karl Marx in which people would benefit justly and equally from their work and the historic class struggle would at last end because classes would be eliminated.
A room or a set of rooms forming a separate residence within a house or block of apartments.
A squalid and overcrowded urban street or district inhabited by very poor people.
The social group consisting of people who are employed for wages, especially in manual or industrial work.
Of or relating to the work done or those who work in an office or other professional environment.
Captains of Industry
A business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributed positively to the country in some way
Culture of Domesticity
A prevailing value system among the upper and middle classes during the nineteenth century in the United States and Great Britain.
An organized association of workers, often in a trade or profession, formed to protect and further their rights and interests.
Working class, name given in "the Communist Manifesto."
Capitalist class that owned factories or most of society's wealth and means of production, name given in "the Communist Manifesto."
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