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Terms in this set (53)
a primary election in which voters are not required to declare party affiliation.
A primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote
a voting process in which voters receive a long ballot containing the names of all contenders, regardless of party, and can vote however they choose
A term that refers to the regular pattern by which women are more likely to support Democratic candidates. Women tend to be significantly less conservative than men and are more likely to support spending on social services and to oppose higher levels of military spending.
A political party created in the 1790s and influenced by Alexander Hamilton that wanted to strengthen the federal government and promote industry and trade.
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
Democratic Party Coalition (modern)
Major supporters of Democratic Party = African-Americans, Jews, Women, Labor Union members, poor people
New Deal Coalition
coalition forged by the Democrats who dominated American politics from the 1930's to the 1960's. its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.
Political Party Functions
-Nominate candidate for public office
-Promote those candidate with the goal of getting elected
-Raise money and give money to candidate running for office
-Develops platform and articulate the issues during the campaign
-Help coordinate the implementation of the policies they support
-Maintain a watchdog function, also called "the loyal opposition," if they do not succeed in getting their candidates elected
A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy
Caucuses and Primaries
Caucus- Party leaders and registered members meet to select a leader. Each party completes this in a different way.
Iowa is most important
Primaries-Elections in which voters choose the nominee or delegates pledged to the nominee.
"Unpledged Delegates" (usually important party members) at national party convention (about 20% of total delegates) who, unlike "pledged delegates" selected in primaries or caucuses, are not committed to a particular candidate. Used by party leaders to retain some control over candidate selection. Can be important in close races (like Obama vs. Hillary Clinton in 2008)
A commission formed at the 1968 Democratic convention in response to demands for reform by minority groups and others who sought better representation.
Motor Voter Act
Passed in 1993, this act went into effect for the 1996 election. It requires states to permit people to register to vote at the same time they apply for their driver's license.
the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election
Campaign contributions unregulated by federal or state law, usually given to parties and party committees to help fund general party activities.
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.
"refers to the idea that, while people may be aware of the necessity of some unpleasant realities, such as prisons, landfills, or chemical plants, they insist theses place be located away from where they live"- NOT IN MY BACK YARD
A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in national elections.
one party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress
An electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first in their constituencies.
voting for candidates of different parties for different offices at the same election
Smith v. Allwright (1944)
Outlawed White primaries held by the Democratic Party, in violation of the 15th Amendment.
Citizens United v. FEC
corporate funding of independent political broadcasts can't be limited
BCRA (Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act)
Largely banned party soft money, restored long-standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions use of general treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy
Federal Election Campaign Act
A law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. The act created the Federal Election Commission (FEC), provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions.
Buckley v. Valeo
A case in which the Supreme Court of the United States upheld federal limits on campaign contributions and ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of constitutionally protected free speech. The court also stated candidates can give unlimited amounts of money to their own campaigns.
26th Amendment (1971)
18 year olds gain the right to vote
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
a special election called by voters to remove an elected official before his/her term expires.
Poltical Action Committees (PACs)
The political arms of an interest group that collects voluntary contributions from members to fund political candidates and parties the interest group favors.
a type of independent political action committee which may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates.
1854 - anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, Free Soilers and reformers from the Northwest met and formed party in order to keep slavery out of the territories
The "solid" South refers to the
the fact that the Democratic Party could count on the votes of the Southern states after Reconstruction and up to the 1960's-1970's
electoral contenders other than the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections.
an alliance of factions
The meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
Elections for the House of Representatives provide
approximately equal representation for every voter
holding the political office for which one is running
The relative infrequency with which members of Congress are defeated in their attempts for reelection.
90% in House - 80% in Senate
Lower Incumbency in Senate
less contact with constituents, more competition, no gerrymandering, more time for competition to raise money
Cracking and Packing
involves spreading out voters of a particular type among many districts in order to deny them a large voting bloc in any particular district.
is to concentrate as many voters of one type into a single electoral district to reduce their influence in other districts.
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Electoral College System
This system would determine the president of the United States. Each state was given a number of electors equal to the total of their number of representatives and senators. These electors would then vote to determine the president. - the number needed to win is 270 today
the process of reassigning representation based on population, after every census
The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population.
Baker v. Carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
drawing the boundaries of legislative districts so that they are unequal in population
often called a "critical election" or political realignment are terms from political science and political history describing a dramatic change in the political system. Often referring to a change in make-up of the voters for a certain party