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Chapter 6 Section 1-2
Terms in this set (80)
The political center of the Roman Empire, the heart of Roman political life
A bundle of rods bound around an ax
"Public affairs," a republic was established from this Latin phrase
A form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders
The wealthy landowners who held most of the power
The common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population
Representative elected by the plebians who protected the rights of the plebeians from unfair acts of patrician officials
The laws that established the idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law
Officials w that directed the government and commanded the army, limited power
"I forbid," to overrule
The aristocratic branch of Rome's government with 300 members
8 judges chosen for one year by to oversee civil and criminal courts
A leader with absolute power to make laws and command the army. Chosen only during crisis
A large military unit; multitude
Wars between Rome and Carthage
"Carthago delenda est"
"Carthage must be destroyed," said by Cato the Elder
A large agricultural estate worked by slaves in ancient Rome
A group of three rulers
"Commentaries on the Gallic Wars"
Caesar's book that shows what he did to the Gauls so that people remembered his name
"Roman Peace," long era of peace and safety in the Roman Empire. 27 B.C.-180 A.D.
A virtue given to someone with the qualities of discipline, strength, and loyalty
a huge arena that could hold 50,000 people; held games and other attractions
A large Roman stadium primarily used for chariot races
Apartment blocks in Rome where the poor lived
Founder of Rome
The twin brother of Romulus, founder of Rome
Tarquin the Proud
Last king of Rome, a harsh tyrant
General of Carthage who fought with elephants and marched his army from Spain to Rome in Second Punic War
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage and defeated Hannibal
Cato the Elder
Roman statesman who hated Carthage (said Carthage must be destroyed)
Tribune who limited size of estates and gave land to poor. Brother of Gaius Gracchus
Tribune who sold grain to poor below market price. Brother of Tiberius
A wealthy Roman who joined forces with Caesar
A popular general who joined forces with Julius Caesar
A military leader who was elected consul
Caesar's grandnephew who took control of Roman for 10 years
Powerful politician, part of second Triumvirate
An experienced general who fell in love with Cleopatra and committed suicide. Part of the second Triumvirate
Most famous gladiator who started a slave rebellion
Europe's Largest Mountain system, Rome was built near here
The mountain range that runs the length of Italy
The river where Rome was founded
A plain in central Italy on which the city of Rome was built
an ancient country in central Italy that was home to the Etruscans
"Greater Greece" (southern Italy & Sicily)
An ancient city on the north coast of Africa and fought Rome many times
Ancient city in Italy where Hannibal defeated the Romans in 216 BC
Place near Carthage where the Romans defeated Hannibal
An ancient region and Roman province that included most of present-day France
River that Julius Caesar crossed that started a civil war in Rome; border of Rome and Gaul
The naval battle in which Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by Octavian's fleet
Roman town destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Strategic location and fertile soil
For what two reasons was the city of Rome built where it was?
It was built on seven hills at a curve in the Tiber river and it was between the Alps and Italy's southern tip
What two facts can be used to prove that Rome was located in a "strategic location?"
The use of the arch
In what area of architecture did the Etruscans most influence the Romans?
That their ancestry gave them authority to make laws
What rationale/argument did Roman patricians use to justify their claim to make laws for Rome?
To protect the rights of plebeians from unfair acts of patrician officials
What appears to have been the primary duty/function of Roman tribunes?
All free citizens had a right to the protection of the law
What was the most important legal concept contained in the Twelve Tables?
Their term was 1 year long, they could not be reelected for 10 years, and they could veto other's decisions
Through what three means was the power of a Roman consul limited?
commanded the army and directed the government
What two types of power did Consuls have in the government of Rome during the period of the Republic?
Their power lasted for only 6 months
In what way was the power of "dictator" limited in the Roman government during the Republic?
They supplied troops for the Roman army and did't make treaties of friendship with any other state
Upon what two conditions did Rome not interfere with conquered groups that became Rome's allies?
To get Hannibal back to Carthage
For what reason was the Third Punic War waged by Rome against Carthage?
Discontent among the lower classes of society and the breakdown in military order
Rome's wealth and growing empire brought many problems. What were the two most serious problems?
During the first century B.C. what percentage of Roman society made up the "urban poor"?
Conflict or civil war between groups in the same country
What did the violent deaths of both Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus signify/indicate about the political situation in Rome during the second century B.C.?
By sharing fully in the hardships of war
How was Julius Caesar able to win the loyalty and devotion of his soldiers?
Created jobs, started colonies where people without land could own property, and increased pay for soldiers
Identify three programs that were initiated by Julius Caesar that were designed to aid Rome's poor.
They feared losing their influence and saw him as a tyrant
Why did Caesar's rivals feel that they had to kill him?
Agriculture, about 90%
What was the most important industry in the Roman Empire? What percentage of the population engaged in this area of the economy?
What percentage/fraction of the Roman population were slaves during the period of the Roman Empire?
It was almost impossible to escape from slavery during the Roman Empire, if you tried to escape you most likely would be dead
In what manner is the word "impunity" applicable to slavery during the Roman Empire as described on page 164 in your textbook?
Suitable for growing crops
A payment for damage or loss
Money paid for protection
Take (a position of power or importance) illegally or by force
Freedom from punishment
To pass a point of no return
Cross the Rubicon (modern idiom)
Leveled to the ground
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