AP first semester

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Paleolithic Revolution
(Old stone age) C. 2.5 million-8000BC
a. achievements: Oldest stone chopping tools
b. occured mostly in the stone age
Neolithic Revolution
(New Stone Age) C. 8000 BC-3000BC
a. achievements: Learned to polish tools, make pottery, grow crops, raise animals
Australopithecines
4 million-1 million BC
a. found in Southern and Eastern Africa
b. Achievements: First humanlike creature to walk upright, able to spot threatening animals and carry food and children
Homohablis
(Man of skill) 2.5-1.5 million BC
a. Found East Africa
b. Achievements: First to make stone tools
Homoerectus
(Upright man) 1.6 million-30,000 BC
a. found: Africa, Asia, Europe
b. 1. able to develop technology
2. Become skillful hinters and better tools
3. first hominids to migrate from Africa
4. First to use fire
5. may have developed the beginnings of a new language
c. Modern humans (wise man)
Homosapiens
200,000-30,000 BC
a. Neanderthals were not ancestors
Neanderthals
a. Found in Europe and Southwest Asia
b. Achievements: developed religious beliefs and performed rituals
Cro Magnon
(Full modern humans) 40,000-8000 BC
a. Found: Europe
b. Achievements: planned hunts, advanced skill in oral language
Egypt
Political-Kings are gods (pharoahs), they ruled on forever
Economic-Nile allowed to unify villages and promote trade
Religious
1. Polytheistic
2. Believed in the afterlife
3. Judged for their deeds when died
4. Mummification: prevent from decaying

Social pyramids-
1. King, queen, royal family
2. Wealthy land owners, government officials, priests, army commanders
3. Merchants/artisans
4. Peasant farmers and laborers
-Egyptians could gain higher status through marraige and succes in profession
-women held many of the same rights as men
Intellectual
1. Hieroglyphics: pictures stood for data
2. Papyrus: Better writing
3. Written numbers for counting, adding, subtracting

Artistic and technological-
1. calendar
2. Written numbers for counting, adding, subtracting
3. Medicine: Heart rate, set broken bones, treatments for fever and wounds, surgery
Geography-
1. Nile, made land fertile
2. Drought, flood, deserts (made Egypt live in a small land and limited interaction with other cultures

Nanmer-3200 BC, villages of Egypt were under the rule of 2 separate kingdoms. Nanmer united the kingdoms
Mesopotamia
Geography:
1. Between Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea
2. Between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates
3. No natural barriers
4. Natural resources were limited (building)

Political: Earlier government
1. Temple priests were in control
2. success of crops depended on blessings of the gods
3. Priests were messengers between gods
4. Ziggurat = city hall
5. Priests managed irrigation system

Political: Time of warAfter 3000 BC wars became more frequent so commanders gained permanent control of standing armies.
1. Military leaders were full time leaders
2. Massed powers to son, heirs (dynasty)
Sumer: ReligiousGods controlled forces of nature
-humanlike but immortal and all powerfull
-souls of dead went to land of no return, gloomy

Sumer: Social
1. Kings, landowners, priests
2. Wealthy merchants
3. Fieldworkers and peopel who worked in workshops
4. Slaves

Sumer: Intellectual
1. number system in base 60 (60 seconds = 1 minuite) and 360 degrees in a circle
2. cuneiform, system of writing
a. stylus- sharp point

Babylonia: Political1. 2000 BC nomadic wariors known as Amorites invaded Mesopotamia and established capital at
Babylon on Euphrates

Hammurabi: 1792-1750 BC; peak of empire; Hammurabi's code
a. code=eye for eye, tooth for tooth concept
b. single code everywhere unified empire
c. protected every social member from unfair treatment
3. Almost 2 centuries later, empire sharank and fell to neighboring Kassites
Indus River Valley
Geography
a. North: Himalaya
b. West: Hindu Kush
c. Both sides of river thrived
d. civilization rose around seasonal rainfall

Achievements:
1. Planned cities (grid system)
2. Wells and indoor plumbing
3. Pottery, cotton clothing, jewlery
4. India's first writing system
5. "Standardization" Bricks

Culture
1. Social divisions were not great
2. Prosperous civilization that they could afford non-essentials
3. conflict was limited
Religion- Theocracy

Trade:
1. Thriving trade within the region
2. Indus river provided link to sea
3. Trade with Mesopotamia and Egypt
a. shows that they were able to learn their language
Yellow River Civilization
Geography:
1. Yangzi river
2. Yellow River
a. flows to Yellow Sea

Environmental Challenges
1. Huang He's floods = disastrous
2. China's isolation made settlers have to supply their own goods
3. Natural boundaries didn't fully protect settlers from outsiders
4. 10 % of land = fertile
5. Himalayas separated Southern China from India

Shang: Economic-Southern china: Warm, rainfall; excellent for growing rice
North: Climate cooler, drier; excellent for growing wheat
Shang: Religious
1. Spirits of family ancestor had the power to bring good fortune or disaster
2. Did not regard spirits as mighty gods
3. Made sacrifices and paid respect to the father's ancestors
4. Polytheisic
5. Used oracle bones - interpreted answers from the gods
Shang: Social
1. Sharply divided between nobles and peasants
2. Ruling class of warrior nobles (owned land) who governed villages in Shang
3. Headed by king who governed Shang
4. Nobles sent tribute to Shang ruler in exchange for local control
Shang: Artistic and Technological
1. Used metallurgy
a. Very strong
b. used for weaponry, agricultual tools, utensils
c. Metal casting
2. 1800 BCE casting of bronze developed, then iron, then steel
3. Row crop farming, gunpowder, paper, wheelbarrows
Zhou: Political
Feudalism: King owns all the land but nobles control land for exchange of crops and warriors when needed.
Dynastic Cycle: Rise and fall and replacement of Rulers
Mandate of Heaven: Permission to rule
Zhou: Social1. nobles gave peasants small plots of land to work and live on in return for a percentage of food.
2. independent craftsmen and merchants lived outside of nobles and king's properties
3. Nobles lived well, while farmers lived with almost no privileges
Intellectual1. Writing became even more developed
2. More efficient technology introduced allowing trade routes to expand
3. Same beliefs in oracle bones and supernatural
Artistic and technological
-Roads and canals built to stimulate trade and agriculture
-Coined money
-Blast furnaces
-Still used jade and used same artistic techniques
Classical Greece
Minoan Society-Island of Crete
-Major city: Knosses
C. 2200 BCE Center of maritime trade
decline after series of natural disasters
Mycenaean Society
C. 2200 BCE Indo-Europeans go through Balkans into Peloponnesus
-influenced by Minoan culture
-Military expansion throughout region
Myancae was built on high ground, surrounded by walls for defense called acropolis
Athens
1. Direct Democracy
a. Council of 500 who made up laws
2. Traded overseas with Egypt, Italy, and Red Sea
3. Delian League
Peloponnesian War-
War between Athens, Delian league and Sparta, Peloponnesian league
1. Sparta's location made it hard for Athens to attack
2. Sparta wins

Government:Key leaders: Pericles - 5th century BCE during Greek Golden Age
Alexander the Great, created Hellenistic culture
Geography
1. Mediterranean Sea
2. Peninsula: surrounded by water in both sides
3. Summers are warm and dry=droughts
4. Mountainous: lack of arable land
a. divided Greece into city-states where they had their own government
Economic:1. Grew grapes and olives
2. Traded olive oil, wines and marole
3. Skilled sailors
Trojan War
c 1200 BCE
-Homer's The IIiad
-Sequal: The Odyssey
1. Mycenaean civilization disappears
2. People no longer lived in cities after collapse of Mycenaean civ.
a. Small tribes/city-states

Pericles-Able to build architect and make the city more beautiful from the money of the Delian's league
Sparta
1. Oligarchy
2. Peloponnesian league
3. Traded within Peloponnesian league

Hellenistic culture
Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, Roman and Indian influences

Alexander the Great
1. Conquered Persia, Anatolia, Egypt
2. Impact of his conquest:
a. unified Greece against Persian empire which was the greatest empire of the time
b. Became introduced to Hellenistic culture
b1. Encouraged Greeks to move in new territories
b2. Married Persian wife
b3. Encouraged generals to marry Persian women
Persian War- War between Athens and Persia
1. Persians had higher numbers of soldiers
2. Greece had an advanced military
3. Xerxes burned athens
4. Persian boats got went through a narrow river and Athens were able to burn the boats
5. Spartan armies were able to fight the Persians
6. Athens became strongest in Greece
7. Created the Delian league

Achievements-literature
legacy-odyssey
literature, entertainment
What were the advantages of Constantinople's location?
They were located on the coastline of the Mediterranean sea, enabling them to trade with many places. Because they could trade with many places, it gained them more money which lead to a stronger economy. The government was strong at the time so a strong economy with a strong government and a unified empire created the successful empire.
What were the lasting legacies of the Byzantine Empire?
What were the lasting legacies of the Byzantine Empire?The Roman Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox split churches, Justinian's restored land of the Roman empire, the Hagia Sofia, the Hippodrome, and Justinian's code.
Why did the Christian Church split?
The Christian church split because of the lack of communication between the Eastern and Western regions of the Roman empires and disagreements about the ways that the Church and governments should be run.
What are the main differences between the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church?
Roman Catholic:
• Services are in Latin
• Pope has authority over all bishops
• Pope has authority over all kings and emperors
• Priests are not permitted to get married
• Divorce is not allowed.

Eastern Orthodox:
• Services are in Greek or local languages
• Patriarch and bishops head the Church as a group
• Emperor claims authority over patriarch and bishops
• Priests can marry
• Divorce is allowed under certain conditions.
Why was the Justinian Code important?
It helped unify the empire. It also was very effective because it was a set of the best rules that would support a strong empire politically and economically. The code also helped keeping order and punishments straight.
The Justinian Code was important because it regulated Byzantium's complex society.
What were the advancements of the Gupta Dynasty?
Literature, sculpture. Textile manufacturing, and other arts flourished. Sanskrit, Hindu schools and Buddhist monasteries taught astronomy, grammar, mathematics, medicine, philosophy and religion. Gupta mathematicians invented the decimal system and the numerals that most of the world uses today. Under the Guptas, Hinduism developed many of the social and religious forms found today. Increased trade routes. Expanded caste system.
Time frames and rulers of the Gupta Dynasty.
i. 308 A.D.- The Gupta family obtains control of Magadha, a small kingdom located in the Ganges Valley.
ii. 308-330 A.D.- Chandragupta I is the first ruler of the Gupta Dynasty and greatly expands the empire by ways of military and marriage.
iii. 330 A.D.- Chandragupta I names his son, Samudra Gupta, the successor of his throne.
iv. 335-380 A.D.- Samudra Gupta is the ruler of the Gupta Empire, he has expanded the empire to northern India, Nepal, the east coast of India, and the entire Ganges River Valley.
v. 380-413 A.D.- Chandragupata II is the ruler of the Gupta Empire he conquers 21 kingdoms. First he conquers eastern and western India then he moves northward to conquer the Persians, Hunas, Kinnaras, and Kiratas.
vi. 413-455 A.D.- Kumaragupta leads during this time, by the end of his rule the Pushyamitras threaten the empire.
vii. 455-467 A.D.- Skandagupta leads during this time period, he defeats the Pushyamitras' threat but then is faced with another threat, the Hunas. The Hunas invaded from the northwest and the expenses of the war exhausted the Gupta empire's resources.
viii. 467-500 A.D.- The Gupta Empire is ruled by weak leaders including Purugupta, Kumaragupta II, Budhagupta, Narasimhagupta, Kumaragupta III, Vishnugupta, Vainyapgupta, Bhanugupta.
ix. By 500 A.D.- Much of the northwest of the empire has been taken over by the Hunas.
x. By 515 A.D.- The Huns reach the Ganges Valley and central India, destroying everything in their path.
Impacts of Golden Ages on their societies
Golden ages are when societies flourish. There is peace, and it's a time where prosperity and success overwhelms the society. They advance in art, sciences, math, literature, military/army/navy, astronomy, religion, a healthy economy, and discover new concepts about the world that better their understanding of it.