Terms in this set (21)

Geography:
1. Yangzi river
2. Yellow River
a. flows to Yellow Sea

Environmental Challenges
1. Huang He's floods = disastrous
2. China's isolation made settlers have to supply their own goods
3. Natural boundaries didn't fully protect settlers from outsiders
4. 10 % of land = fertile
5. Himalayas separated Southern China from India

Shang: Economic-Southern china: Warm, rainfall; excellent for growing rice
North: Climate cooler, drier; excellent for growing wheat
Shang: Religious
1. Spirits of family ancestor had the power to bring good fortune or disaster
2. Did not regard spirits as mighty gods
3. Made sacrifices and paid respect to the father's ancestors
4. Polytheisic
5. Used oracle bones - interpreted answers from the gods
Shang: Social
1. Sharply divided between nobles and peasants
2. Ruling class of warrior nobles (owned land) who governed villages in Shang
3. Headed by king who governed Shang
4. Nobles sent tribute to Shang ruler in exchange for local control
Shang: Artistic and Technological
1. Used metallurgy
a. Very strong
b. used for weaponry, agricultual tools, utensils
c. Metal casting
2. 1800 BCE casting of bronze developed, then iron, then steel
3. Row crop farming, gunpowder, paper, wheelbarrows
Zhou: Political
Feudalism: King owns all the land but nobles control land for exchange of crops and warriors when needed.
Dynastic Cycle: Rise and fall and replacement of Rulers
Mandate of Heaven: Permission to rule
Zhou: Social1. nobles gave peasants small plots of land to work and live on in return for a percentage of food.
2. independent craftsmen and merchants lived outside of nobles and king's properties
3. Nobles lived well, while farmers lived with almost no privileges
Intellectual1. Writing became even more developed
2. More efficient technology introduced allowing trade routes to expand
3. Same beliefs in oracle bones and supernatural
Artistic and technological
-Roads and canals built to stimulate trade and agriculture
-Coined money
-Blast furnaces
-Still used jade and used same artistic techniques
Minoan Society-Island of Crete
-Major city: Knosses
C. 2200 BCE Center of maritime trade
decline after series of natural disasters
Mycenaean Society
C. 2200 BCE Indo-Europeans go through Balkans into Peloponnesus
-influenced by Minoan culture
-Military expansion throughout region
Myancae was built on high ground, surrounded by walls for defense called acropolis
Athens
1. Direct Democracy
a. Council of 500 who made up laws
2. Traded overseas with Egypt, Italy, and Red Sea
3. Delian League
Peloponnesian War-
War between Athens, Delian league and Sparta, Peloponnesian league
1. Sparta's location made it hard for Athens to attack
2. Sparta wins

Government:Key leaders: Pericles - 5th century BCE during Greek Golden Age
Alexander the Great, created Hellenistic culture
Geography
1. Mediterranean Sea
2. Peninsula: surrounded by water in both sides
3. Summers are warm and dry=droughts
4. Mountainous: lack of arable land
a. divided Greece into city-states where they had their own government
Economic:1. Grew grapes and olives
2. Traded olive oil, wines and marole
3. Skilled sailors
Trojan War
c 1200 BCE
-Homer's The IIiad
-Sequal: The Odyssey
1. Mycenaean civilization disappears
2. People no longer lived in cities after collapse of Mycenaean civ.
a. Small tribes/city-states

Pericles-Able to build architect and make the city more beautiful from the money of the Delian's league
Sparta
1. Oligarchy
2. Peloponnesian league
3. Traded within Peloponnesian league

Hellenistic culture
Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, Roman and Indian influences

Alexander the Great
1. Conquered Persia, Anatolia, Egypt
2. Impact of his conquest:
a. unified Greece against Persian empire which was the greatest empire of the time
b. Became introduced to Hellenistic culture
b1. Encouraged Greeks to move in new territories
b2. Married Persian wife
b3. Encouraged generals to marry Persian women
Persian War- War between Athens and Persia
1. Persians had higher numbers of soldiers
2. Greece had an advanced military
3. Xerxes burned athens
4. Persian boats got went through a narrow river and Athens were able to burn the boats
5. Spartan armies were able to fight the Persians
6. Athens became strongest in Greece
7. Created the Delian league

Achievements-literature
legacy-odyssey
literature, entertainment