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Exam 4 Questions
Terms in this set (52)
The esophagus is a part of the _______, while the pancreas is considered a(n) _______ when it comes to the digestive system.
A) alimentary canal; accessory digestive organ
B) stomach; propulsion organ
c) accessory organs; alimentary canal component
d) pharynx; mechanical digestive organ
The majority of absorption occurs in the _______.
B. small intestine
C. large intestine
B. Small intestine
The majority of _________ occurs in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine.
B. chemical digestion
C. mechanical digestion
C. Mechanical digestion
Choose the answer that lists the four layers of the wall of the alimentary canal in the appropriate order from innermost to outermost.
A. Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
B. Submucosa, mucosa, serosa, muscularis externa
C. Serosa, mucosa, muscularis externa, submucosa
D. Muscularis externa, submucosa, serosa, mucosa
Which of the following types of epithelial tissues is most predominant throughout the digestive tract?
A. Simple squamous
B. Stratified squamous
C. Simple columnar
D. Simple cuboidal
Chemical digestion is initiated in the _________.
C. small intestine
D. large intestine
Most teeth are primarily composed of _________.
What is a possible side effect of weakening of the cardiac (lower esophageal) sphincter?
A. Acid reflux into the esophagus
B. Uncontrollable bowel movements
C. Heart attack
D. Rapid overfilling of the stomach
The stomach is able to expand nearly 80 times its empty volume partly due to _______ in its walls.
C. plicae circulares
When your stomach growls in response to an ad on TV for food, the _________ phase of gastric secretion is initiated.
The ______ cells are responsible for HCl production.
Why is the small intestine well adapted for nutrient absorption?
A. Acid secretions from the stomach are neutralized in the duodenum.
B. CCK is released from the duodenum to promote liver and pancreatic secretion.
C. Large surface area due to the presence of the plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli.
D. The small intestine is very long and thin.
_______ macrophages are located in the liver.
Cirrhosis of the liver would most severely impact digestion of _______.
B. amino acids
In terms of gastrointestinal function, the large intestine's greatest contribution is:
A. exposing the chyme to the rich assortment of pancreatic enzymes through the process of segmentation.
B. absorption of all primary nutrients.
C. absorption of water.
D. regulation of gastric motility.
Which of the following enzymes chemically breaks down lipids?
D. None of the above
The two main fluid compartments within the body are _______ and _______.
A. plasma; interstitial fluid
B. adipose; skeletal muscle
C. intracellular fluid;
D. extracellular fluid
Which of the following accounts for the most water loss, second only to urine output?
A. Insensible perspiration
An increase in the ECF solute content causes:
A. water to move into the cell
B. solute to move out of the cell
C. water to move out of the cell
D. both a and b
Which is the most potent stimulus for thirst?
A. Dry mouth
B. An increase in plasma osmolarity
C. An increase in blood volume
D. The sight of a cold drink
When ADH levels are low, the kidneys produce _______ urine.
C. a low volume of
An overheated marathon runner accepts cups of plain water at each refreshment area. When the race ends, the runner is very disoriented and collapses. What is the best explanation for her condition?
A. The runner overexerted herself.
B. The runner needs more water because she is dehydrated.
C. The runner is suffering from hypotonic hydration and her cell fluids are overdiluted.
D. The runner's ICF is hypotonic to her ECF.
Which of the following statements best summarizes the relationship between the sodium content of fluids and water movement?
A. Water follows salt.
B. Salt follows water.
C. Water equals salt.
D. Water solubilizes salt.
You would expect blood levels of ANP to increase when
A. blood pressure is increased
B. there is an increase in preload
C. the walls of the atria are stretched
D. all of the above occur
A(n) _______ nutrient is one that the body cannot synthesize rapidly enough to be useful.
In general metabolic terms, food digestion is a form of _______, while building new protein molecules is a form of _______.
A. metabolism; cellular respiration
B. anabolism; catabolism
C. cellular respiration; metabolism
D. catabolism; anabolism
The process whereby excess glucose is stored in cells is called _______.
What is the primary process by which insulin is released after ingesting a meal?
A. Insulin is secreted in direct response to blood glucose.
B. The brain sends a hormone to the pancreas to stimulate insulin release.
C. Insulin release is constant.
D. The vagus nerve innervates the pancreas and upon food ingestion fires action potentials that stimulate insulin secretion.
What is the primary objective during the postabsorptive state?
A. To collect and remove glucose from the blood and deposit it in cells
B. To convert fat to protein
C. To maintain blood glucose homeostasis
D. To elevate blood glucose to the highest possible level to ensure adequate delivery to the brain
Where are the two primary sources of glucose during the postabsorptive state?
A. Greater omentum and subcutaneous layer
B. Stomach and intestine
C. Liver and skeletal muscle
D. Brain and skin
Why are high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) considered "good"?
A. The cholesterol transported by HDLs is destined for destruction.
B. HDLs transport cholesterol to the peripheral tissues for biosynthesis of steroid hormones.
C. HDLs transport cholesterol to adipose tissue.
D. HDLs are actually considered "bad" cholesterol.
When the body is at rest, which of the following accounts for about 20-30% of heat generation?
C. Cardiac muscle
D. Skeletal muscle
Which of the following structures is responsible for maintaining temperature?
The basal metabolic rate can most effectively be defined as the _______.
A. lowest point of energy used by the body
B. amount of energy needed to maintain life
C. maximal energy used by the body
D. energy required to digest a meal
Which of the following has the greatest effect on the BMR?
A. Body surface area
B. Muscle mass
C. Fitness level
Which of the following is not a cause of the low metabolic rate typical of the elderly?
A. Declining efficiency of the endocrine system
B. Muscle and bone wasting
C. The liver has become more efficient in detoxification
D. The elderly are less active
Urine collection occurs in the _______ of the kidney.
The blood-filtering structure of the kidney is called the
The complete functional filtration units of the kidney are the _______.
Based on the histology of a renal tubule, which section would be most severely inhibited if simple squamous epithelium were damaged?
Thin segment of the nephron loop
Which of the following factors contribute(s) to the higher filtration rate in the glomerular capillaries compared with other capillary beds?
A. The glomerular capillaries are fenestrated.
B. The diameter of the efferent arteriole is smaller than the diameter of the afferent arteriole.
C. The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is very porous.
D. All of the above contribute
What type of response by the afferent arterioles would you expect if blood pressure increased?
A. The afferent arterioles would constrict.
B. The afferent arterioles would dilate.
C. The afferent arterioles would stimulate renin release.
D. The afferent arterioles would not respond to blood pressure changes.
Autoregulatory mechanisms (intrinsic controls) are most effective:
A. for renin secretion.
B. when the arterial pressure drops below 80 mm Hg.
C. at releasing epinephrine.
D. when the arterial pressure is between 80 and 180 mm Hg.
Extrinsic controls regulate glomerular filtration rate as a means of regulating _______.
A. urine production
B. cardiac output
C. blood osmolarity
D. red blood cell production
Which of the following general functions can be assigned to aldosterone?
A.Increased water reabsorption
B. Increased blood pressure
C. Increased urine production
D. Both a and b
What would be the effect on urine output if sodium channels in the tubule cells were inhibited?
A. The volume would increase.
B. The volume would decrease, then quickly resume
C. The volume would decrease by half the sodium concentration.
D. The volume would decrease by one-tenth the sodium concentration.
Why is glucose in the urine an indicator of diabetes mellitus?
A. Glucose occupies all the transport carriers and the excess is not reabsorbed.
B. Because diabetics cannot regulate their glucose.
C. When blood glucose is high, it is secreted in the urine.
D. Because diabetics have high levels of glucagon.
How does ADH contribute to the formation of concentrated urine?
A. ADH decreases the permeability of the ascending limb of the nephron loop to water.
B. ADH decreases the permeability of the descending limb of the nephron loop to water.
C. ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water by stimulating the insertion of aquaporins into the luminal membrane.
D. ADH decreases the permeability of the collecting duct to water by inhibiting the insertion of aquaporins into the luminal membrane.
Which of the following is not a layer of the urinary bladder?
Which feature of the bladder predisposes it to being able to stretch and relax repeatedly?
A. The wall contains smooth muscle.
B. The trigone acts as a spring when the bladder empties.
C. The epithelium is transitional.
D. When emptied, the digestive viscera compress the bladder.
The process of voiding the bladder is called _______.
B. the urethral reflex
C. detrusor activation
What is the functional difference between a male urethra and a female urethra?
A. Males have three urethral sphincters.
B. The male urethra is shared with the reproductive system.
C. The male urethra is connected to the renal pelvis.
D. The female urethra is much longer than a male's.
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