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85 terms

Connective Tissue

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Loose (areolar)
What type of connective tissue proper does not have a lot of structural rigidity nor abundant fibers?
Loose (areolar)
What type of connective tissue proper is found in hypodermis of skin and under surface epithelia of respiratory system and GI tract?
Dense (regular and irregular)
What type of connective tissue proper has a much higher concentration of fibers than loose, connective tissue?
Dense regular
What type of connective tissue proper has tight bundled structures with fibers that tend to line up in parallel to provide strength?
Dense regular
What type of connective tissue proper is commonly found in ligaments and tendons?
Dense irregular
What type of connective tissue proper has a random arrangement of fibers?
Dense irregular
What type of connective tissue proper is commonly found in the dermis of skin, sheaths of tendons and nerves, and capsules of many organs?
Fibroblasts
What are largely responsible for influencing the alignment of collagen fibers?
Reticular
What type of connective tissue proper is composed of type III collagen fibers?
Reticular
What type of connective tissue proper is commonly found in lympathic organs?
Adipose
What type of connective tissue proper often form sheets of fat cells?
Adipose
What type of connective tissue proper is often found in loose areolar connective tissue?
Adipose
What type of connective tissue proper is commonly found surrounding kidney and adrenal glands?
Fibrous
What type of connective tissue proper has abundant extracellular fibrous tissue?
Elastic
What type of connective tissue proper is more elastic and found in large arteries and the trachea?
Mucous
What type of connective tissue proper is found within the umbilical cord?
Fixed cells
What type of cells end up remaining in the general area where they originated?
Fixed cell
Fibroblast is a type of (fixed/wandering) cell.
Fibroblasts
What type of cells originate locally from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells and spend their life in connective tissue?
Fibroblasts
What type of cells are responsible for providing almost all components within the ECM?
Fibroblasts
What type of cells are the most common cell in connective tissue?
Fibroblasts
What type of cells synthesize GAGs, elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans?
Fibroblasts
What type of cells synthesize multi-adhesive glycoproteins, like laminin and fibronectin?
Fibrocytes
What term is given to quiescent fibroblasts?
White
What type of adipose is unilocular for the lipid droplet?
Brown
What type of adipose has several similar-sized lipid droplets and lots of mitochondria?
Brown
Which adipose tissue plays a role in thermoregulation for newborns and hibernating animals?
Brown
Which adipose is physiologically geared toward creating non-shivering heat but is not very abundant in adult humans?
Wandering cells
What type of cells are brought into connective tissue by the blood vascular system?
Wandering cells
What type of cells are leukocytes?
Monocytes
Where do macrophages arise?
Wandering cells
What type of cells are mast cells?
Diapadesis
What is the active process of cells moving from the blood vascular system into the connective tissue?
Diapadesis
What process is the progression of cells from inside the blood vascular system to outside in to the connective tissue?
Lymphocytes
What are the only cells that may return to the blood vascular system from the connective tissue?
Hematopoetic
What kind of stem cells are cells that arise from the bone marrow?
Plasma cells
Which cells have a eccentrically placed nucleus with a clock-face appearance?
Plasma cells
Which cells arise from activated B lymphocytes and produce/secrete antibodies?
Golgi bodies
In plasma cells, juxtanuclear clear areas account for which organelle not taking up stain?
Plasma cells
Which cells are prevalent in areas prone to infection?
Macrophages
Which cells have an eccentric nucleus and act as defense elements?
Macrophages
Which cells present antigen that they have partially digested to stimulate an immune response?
Alveolar macrophages
What is a type of macrophage that can be found at the base of the lungs?
Mast cells
Which cells are large with a central nucleus?
Mast cells
Which cells stimulate immediate hypersensitivity response?
Mast cells
Which cells demonstrate metachromasia due to acidic radical content?
Mast cells
Which cells induce anaphylaxis?
Anaphylaxis
What is the massive, sudden release of a lot of potent factors from the mast cells?
Anaphylaxis
What is characterized by the contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of a lot of fluid from the capillaries due to release of pharmacologically active substances?
Proteoglycans
Provide a hydrated gel, which resists compressive forces.
Proteoglycans
Consists of a glycosoaminoglycan (GAG) bounded to a protein core.
Aggregan
What is a dominant ECM proteoglycan aggregate in cartilage?
GAG (gycosoaminoglycan)
Which protein tends to be prevalent in structures such as the interior of the eye or cartilage?
GAG
Which protein attracts sodium ions and water?
Integrin
What mediates the transmembrane linkage of ECM components and actin?
Integrin
What is anchored inside the cell to the cytoskeleton and externally via fibronectin to the ECM?
Hyaluronan
What kind of GAG binds a lot of water and can become an aggregate serving as a good model for compressive forces?
Rapid
Proteoglycans have (rapid/slow) turnover rates.
Mucopolysaccharidoses
A series of genetic disorders characterized by the inability to break down proteoglycans.
Vitamin C
What is a cofactor for proline hydroxylase?
Lysine and proline
Which amino acids are hydroxylated during collagen synthesis?
Type I
Which type of collagen composes bones and tendons?
Type III
Which type of collagen composes reticular fibers?
Type IV
Which type of collagen composes the basement membrane (attaches to integrins)?
Type V
Which type of collagen participates in type I collagen function?
Outside
Final assemblage of collagen takes place (outside/inside) the cell.
Secretory vesicles
How does pro-collagen get secreted?
Scurvy
What is a deficiency of connective tissue that may cause teeth to fall out?
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
What syndrome is associated with collagen synthesis problems?
Collagen type III
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome type 4 is associated with what deficiency?
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
What is characterized by ruptures in arteries and the intestine? (Both structures are rich in reticular fibers)
Type 6
Which type of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is associated with cutis hyperelastica?
True
T/F: Arygophilic fibers are the only type of collagen that will stain with silver salts.
False (They ARE!!)
T/F: Reticular fibers are not arygophilic.
Reticular fibers
Common type of fibers in lymph nodes and spleen.
Elastin and fibrilin
What are the two major proteins of elastic fibers?
Fibrilin
What protein is necessary for elastin deposition ?
FBN-1
What gene is most important for fibrilin?
Marfan's
A defect in the FBN-1 gene results in what?
Marfan's
What defect is characterized by hyperelastic joints and long arms/fingers?
False (fibroblasts are derived from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells and are grouped with the fixed cells along with adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts.)
T/F Wandering cells are those derived from hematopoetic stem cells such as mast cells, red blood cells, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
Neutrophils
These cells are capable of phagocytosis and are usually first to arrive to an area of inflammation. They are responsible for control of a bacterial infection
Fibronectin
What protein is responsible for attachment of the cell to extracellular matrix?
Type IV collagen and laminin
What makes up the basement membrane?
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LOOK AT: Formation of a collagen fibril