40 terms

American History 6,7, and 8

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Andrew Carnegie
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Bessemer Steel Process
A new way to create steel that led to mass production of steel
Carnegie's management techniques
1. He continually searched for new ways to make products more cheaply.
2. He incorporated new machinery and techniques
3. He attracted talented people by offering them stock in the company.
4. He encouraged competition among his workers/assistants.
Vertical Integration
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Horizontal Integration
In this process companies producing similar products merge.
Social Darwinism
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
Trust Agreement
successful consolidation technique in which stockholders of individual corporations transferred their stocks to trustees in exchange for other shares in the combination; allowed stockholders to receive a share of the combination's profits.
Why were critics angry with Rockefeller's tactics?
He would drive his competitors out of the market by selling his oil at a price lower than it cost to produce it. Then, when he controlled the market, he hiked prices far above original levels.
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 law banning any trust that restrained interstate trade or commerce
Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
an alliance of trade and craft unions, formed in 1886
Eugene V. Debs
led the Pullman strike and founded the American Railway Union. Many of the new members were unskilled or semiskilled laborers.
Haymarket Square Riot
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
Homestead Strike
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
Pullman Strike (1894)
A staged walkout strike by railroad workers upset by drastic wage cuts. The strike was led by socialist Eugene Debs but not supported by the American Federation of Labor. Eventually President Grover Cleveland intervened because it was interfering with mail delivery and federal troops forced an end to the strike. The strike highlighted both divisions within labor and the government's continuing willingness to use armed force to combat work stoppages.
Mary Harris Jones
Most prominent organizer in the women's labor movement
Ellis Island
Immigration processing center that open in New York Harbor in 1892
Angel Island
Inspection station for immigrants arriving on the West Coast
Nativism
Favoritism toward native born Americans.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 law that prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers
Gentlemen's Agreement
1907 agreement between the United States and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration
Urbanization
the growth of cities
Americanization movement
Social campaign designed to assimilate people of wide ranging cultures.
Tenements
Poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
mass transit
Transportation system designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes
Ida B. Wells
African-American journalist who led the fight against lynching
poll tax
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote
Grandfather Clause
This stated that even if a man failed the literacy test or could not afford the poll tax, he was still able to vote, if he, his father or his grandfather, had been eligible to vote before January 1, 1867.
Segregation
separation of the races
Jim Crow Laws
Racial segregation laws to separate whites and blacks in public and private facilities.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Booker T. Washington
Established the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. Believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society.
W.E.B. DuBois
The first African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard. He started the Niagara movement.
Niagara Movement
Insisted that blacks should seek a liberal arts education so that the African American community would have well-educated leaders.
Debt Peonage
A system that bound laborers into slavery in order to work off a debt to the employer
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb and later a system for producing and distributing electrical power.
Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers