34 terms

4.1 Animal Biology Terms

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Absorption
The intake of water, gases, nutrients or other substances.
Aerobic
Pertaining to organisms that grow only in the presence of oxygen, as bacteria in properly prepared compost.
Anaerobic
Living or active in the absence of free oxygen.
Anatomy
The branch of biology that deals with the structure of organisms.
Cell Membrane
Also called the plasma membrane.
Cellular Respiration
Energy yielding oxidative reactions in living organisms that typically involve transfer of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide and water as end products.
Centrosome
A minute protoplasmic body sometimes held to be the dynamic center of mitotic activity.
Concentration
The amount of a component in a given mass or volume.
Cytoskeleton
Protein filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm that controls cell shape and is involved in cell movement.
Diffusion
The process by which molecules move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Structure extending throughout the cytoplasm of a cell.
Epithelium
Cellular tissue covering all the free body surfaces, cutaneous, mucous, and serous, including the glands and other structures derived therefrom.
Equilibrium
A state that exists when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space
Golgi Apparatus
Cell organelle, important for glycosylation and secretion in cells.
Hibernation
To spend the winter in close quarters in a dormant condition, as bears and certain other animals.
Hypertonic
Describing a solution whose solute concentration is higher than that inside a cell
Hypotonic
Describing a solution whose solute concentration is lower that than inside a cell
Isotonic
Describing a solution whose solute concentration equals that inside a cell.
Lateral
A directional or positional term meaning away from the middle or toward the side
Lysosome
An organelle bounded by a membrane and containing enzymes capable of breaking down proteins and other molecules.
Membrane
A thin, flexible sheet of vegetable or animal tissue.
Metabolism
Physical and chemical processes in an organism by which living matter is produced,maintained, and destroyed, and by means of which energy is made available.
Mitochondria
Cell organelles composed of an outer membrane and a winding inner membrane.
Nucleolus
A spherical body found within the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Nucleus
The central portion of the cell protoplast surrounded by a very thin membrane.
Osmosis
The flow of water through a semi-permeable membrane separating two solutions, which permits the passage of the solvent but not the dissolved substance
Protoplasm
A unit of protoplasm in one cell.
Protoplast
The gelatinous, colloidal material of plants and animals in which all life activities occur
Respiration
A chemical process that takes place in living cells whereby food (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) is "burned" (oxidized) to release energy and waste products.
Ribosome
A particle that lies along the endoplasmic reticulum and is composed of a protein portion and RNA.
Secretory Vesicle
Membrane bounded sac derived from the Golgi apparatus and containing material that is to be released from the cell.
Solute
A dissolved substance
Tissue
Groups of cells working together to carry out a common function, such as muscle tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue.
Vacuole
A cavity that is within the cytoplasm, filled with a watery fluid, bound by a membrane, and considered to be nonliving