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PSY 311 Final Gross
Terms in this set (103)
The most salient feature of schizophrenics is that these individuals show a major disturbance in ________.
Hallucinations are ________.
false sensory perceptions
The four categories of schizophrenia include ________, ________, ________, and ________.
Motor behavior disturbance is associated with ________ schizophrenia.
When a schizophrenic believes that everyone in his or her environment can hear his/her thoughts this is called ________.
In the schizophrenogenic family the process by which children are taught to doubt their own feelings and perceptions is called ________.
The three processes that contribute to the development of schizophrenic thinking in a schizophrenogenic family are ________, ________, and ________.
parents never make children feel right or wrong
if a patient is released into a house with negative or positive energy, the energy will affect the outcome of whether or not the person will remain bettter
A possible side effect of chronic use of neuroleptic drugs is ________.
What is waxy flexibility?
A catatonic schizophrenic patient who is frozen in a position and will not move.
The evidence from which the dopamine hypothesis was developed include ________, ________, ________, and ________.
Parkinson's side effects, L-dopa, neuroleptic drugs
• Dopamine hypothesis: model, attributing schizophrenia to a disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction
• The model draws evidence from the observation that a large number of antipsychotics have dopamine-receptor antagonistic effects; the theory does not posit dopamine overabundance as a complete explanation for schizophrenia
• Those treated with dopamine enhancing L-Dopa for Parkinson's disease can experience psychotic side effects mimicking the symptoms of schizophrenia
The normal percentage of body fat for men is ______ and ______ for women.
15% ; 22-26%
The current cultural ideal of the beautiful women requires an unrealistically ______ percentage of ________.
low ; body fat
There is growing evidence that body fat distribution is in part ________ determined.
The five eating disorders are ________, ________, ________, ________, ________.
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
swallowing and bringing it back to your mouth and re-eat it, usually infants
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
feeding disorder in infancy, they do not gain weight, are difficult to console over eating
eat something that is not food (exception is the dirt eaters who eat a certain type of clay)
refusal to eat, fear of gaining weight, throwing up, excessive exercise, measuring and weighing, purge and binge with laxatives, OCD over food and diets, lots of anxiety and depression, malnutrition
eats more food than one would expect, gluttony, normally do not care if they gain weight, claim they cannot control themselves
The general standard for determining obesity involves an individual being ______ over ideal body weight.
Skin fold calipers are used to assess ________.
Obesity is due to ________ energy balance and anorexia is due to ________ energy balance.
positive ; negative
An adipocyte is a ________.
Hyperplastic cells are associated with ________ while hypertrophic cells are associated with ________.
increased number of cells ; increased cell size
What is resting metabolic rate?
The amount of calories that are burned while at rest.
Data suggest that dieting results in a ________ of the resting metabolic rate. This results in rapid ________ when a person stops dieting.
decrease ; weight gain
What are the defining characteristic of bulimia?
Within 10 lb. of normal body weight ; Not usually extremely under weight ; Binging ; Purging behaviors
The most salient non-eating related aspect of bulimia is the disturbance of ________. Bulimic women tend to view themselves as ________ then they actually are.
body image ; larger
From a behavioral point of view purging after a binge would be maintained by ________.
Major health consequences of bulimia include ________.
malnutrition and death
Long term data indicates that within a few years of the termination of a successful diet almost all dieters ________.
gain 105% of pre-diet weight
The data indicate that to ensure long term maintenance of weight loss the treatment must include an ________ program.
The degree to which an individual is inebriated is primarily dependent on ________.
Alcohol abuse results in poor health because of:
A - decreased WBC
B - no nutrition
C - interferes with use of nutrients
What are Jellinek's stages of alcoholism?
Pre-alcoholic, prodromal, crucial, chronic.
First experience drinking, experience several positive consequences, and anxiety reduction.
Regular drinking ; larger amount, first blackout, surreptitiously (secretively) drinking, often pregame so people do not know how much they drink.
People begin to show social problems because of alcohol, beverage switching, experience loss of control (1 drink, 1 drink - once they start, they cannot stop - this is completely up to the patient, there is no physiological loss of control).
Drinking from A.M. to P.M. with anyone, anywhere ; loss of tolerance.
What are the behavioral characteristics of abusive drinkers?
Large sip size, beverage choice, and short intervals.
Abusive drinking develops as a result of what three behavioral processes?
A - positive/negative reinforcement
B - Respondent conditioning
C - Modeling
What are the bodies self-produced opiate like substances?
What drugs are associated with the most dangerous withdrawal symptoms?
barbiturates and alcohol
Alcohol is metabolized primarily by the ________.
liver (also in small intestine)
What is Korsakoffs Syndrome?
Involves early memory loss and states that if you do not stop drinking, you will end up unable to care for yourself.
What are the four stages of the sexual response cycle?
Desire ; Arousal ; Orgasm ; Resolution
Sex behavior surveys are subject to ________ bias.
A fetish involves ________. This disorder is most common among ______.
inanimate objects ; men
Cross dressing is a primary feature of ________.
transvestism (recurrent and intense sexual arousal from dressing in clothes of the opposite sex)
recurrent and intense sexual arousal from exposing the genitals to an unsuspecting individual ; "flashers"
recurrent and intense sexual arousal from observing an unsuspecting individual who is naked, disrobing, or engaging in sexual activity (peeping Tom)
Sexual Masochism Disorder
repeatedly and intensely sexually aroused by the act of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer
Sexual Sadism Disorder
usually male ; repeatedly and intensely sexually aroused by the physical or psychological suffering of another individual
Gender Dysphoria (transgender)
a disorder in which people persistently feel that a vast mistake has been made, they have been born to the wrong sex, and gender changes would be desirable
equal or greater sexual arousal from prepubescent or early pubescent children than from physically mature persons
repeated and intense sexual arousal from touching or rubbing against non-consenting person
Masters and Johnson discovered that sexual dysfunction is generally associated with ________, ________, and ________.
religion ; trauma ; punitive attitudes about sex
What is vaginismus?
A female penetration disorder or a spasm upon penetration.
What is premature ejaculation?
A failure to learn how to control one's response to arousal.
According to Masters and Johnson, spectatoring involves _____________.
having an announcer in your head or being unable to relax and enjoy the moment (out of body experience- wondering how you are doing as a partner)
What are the three categories of paraphillias?
preference for non-human objects ; situations involving suffering or humiliation ; non-consenting
Pedophilia most often involves assailants who are ________ or ________ of the victim. These offenses also frequently occur in the ________.
family ; friends ; child's home
The major difference between men and women in terms of the sexual response cycle concerns the ________ phase.
What was the Freudian view of vaginal and clitoral orgasm and psychopathology?
There were 2 types of orgasms: clitoral OR vaginal
• In 1905, Freud stated that clitoral orgasms are purely an adolescent phenomenon and that upon reaching puberty, the proper response of mature women is a changeover to vaginal orgasms, meaning orgasms without any clitoral stimulation. While Freud provided no evidence for this basic assumption, the consequences of this theory were considerable. Many women felt inadequate when they could not achieve orgasm via vaginal intercourse alone.
a thought disorder characterized by unattached reality, non-aggression, and difficulty understanding the world
false beliefs that in the face of evidence to the contrary they just do not let go
Delusions of Grandeur
ideas that you have powers or can do anything
Delusions of Control
ideas of influence on you
Delusions of Reference
everything pertains to me
Type II Schizophrenia
negative symptoms, withdrawn, lack of motivations, draws into themselves
Type I Schizophrenia
positive symptoms, outward
Extra-paramidal side effects that come from antipsychotic drugs
akathisa, dyskinesia, tremors
absence of a menstrual cycle due to anorexic behavior
Men - 5 drinks in an episode
Women - 4 drinks in an episode
Physiologically do not tolerate alcohol as well as men and also have more health problems related to alcohol.
Alcohol Abuse Disorder
has collateral damage greater than that of a drug addict, assaults, breaking things, involved with sexual assaults
amount of alcohol the body can metabolize on average
when you drink faster than you can metabolize and you become intoxicated
Fat build up is a sign of ________.
the start of liver failure
when an alcoholic in the early stages of memory loss makes an excuse to sound like they just forgot
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
when a woman drinks more than 5 oz. a day complicates pregnancy, and the baby comes out much smaller, has intellectual developmental disorders, hyperactivity, head and face deformities, heart defects, and slow growth
8 oz. of alcohol
= 1200 calories
the physiological "need" for the substance
goes beyond need, people who continue to use substances in spite of consequences
when reached, people need increasing doses of the substance to produce the desired deficit
occurs when an individual suddenly stops taking or cuts back on the substance and blood concentration is dropping causing effects like cramping, anxiety attacks, sweating, and nausea
terrifying visual hallucinations that begin within 3 days after they stop or reduce drinking
number of people who experience the DTs (withdrawal/seizures) with alcohol
Poppies, Morphine, Heroin ; endorphins - neurotransmitters that relieve pain and reduce tension
Means of drug abuse
skin contact, injecting, snorting/inhaling, eating
Sedative hypnotic drugs
anxiety-reducing ; produce feelings of relaxation and drowsiness
First prescribed to reduce anxiety and aid sleep
• Have been replaced by benzodiazepines, which are generally safer
• Usually taken in pill or capsule form
• Repeated use can quickly result in sedative-hypnotic use disorder and spend much of the day intoxicated, irritable, and unable to do work
Most popular sedative-hypnotic drugs available
• Examples: Xanax, Ativan, and Valium
• Relieve anxiety without making people as drowsy as other kinds of sedative-hypnotics & are also less likely to slow a person's breathing, so they are less likely to cause death by overdose.
increase the activity of the central nervous system, resulting in increased blood pressure and heart rate, greater alertness, and sped up behavior and thinking
A - LSD (one of the most famous and powerful hallucinogens)
B - Cannabis
conducted a study of 20,000 adults whose sexual lives were examined
Masters and Johnson
Study in STL in the 70s, 15,000 sex acts were examined; created the sexual response cycle
excitement, begin to receive some sort of stimuli that produces erotic sensations
plateau, height of sexual arousal
emission and ejaculation
Incest is most common amongst whom?
Brothers and Sisters
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