19 terms

SD2700 Quiz 2

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Terms in this set (...)

Globalization
The increased range, speed, and intensity of human-induced connections between different parts of the world.
Neoliberalism
deregulating the domestic market economy and opening a country to international markets instead of state-led development. favors free market capitalism, supported by globalization
How they moved towards Neoliberalism
*Domestically - Reducing state regulation of and participation in the economy
*Internationally - Eliminating border controls over the trade of commodities, and movement of labor and capital
*Strengthening protection for investors and traders
Post-Development Theory
Holds that the whole concept and practice of development is a reflection of Western-Northern has dominance over the rest of the world, and fails as a result
Critiques of Post-Development
*Not taking colonial/imperial processes seriously enough
*Nothing new is being said
*Not taking complexity of actors involved (multiplicities of rationalities held) seriously enough
*Too easily romanticizes the local and disparages development
Accumulation by Dispossession
A process wherein wealth and power are centralized in the hands of the few by dispossessing individuals of their wealth or land
Accumulation by Dispossession example
(In Laos)
*after the economic reforms in the 1980s, there was an opportunity for mining and agriculture corporations.
*By the 1990s, the land had become big rubber plantations are were acquired by large corporations from the common lands and private lands of indigenous people
(some villages the agricultural lands were bulldozed away at night without warning and, In some cases, 83% of the agricultural land of the indigenous villages was lost to rubber plantations. Most of the people had to relocate. These family's move to large rubber plantation developed settlements, Where the problem of lost income is 'solved' because those people can work at these plantations.
*The 'wealth' and production assets (land) of the indigenous people living in these regions are privatized or nationalized. Therefore, control over this land is acquired by corporations to accumulate more profits.
How did the Green Revolution create scarcity at the same time that it produced higher yields? (three ways)
1: scarcity in crop diversity-> affects soil nutrients. 2: Unequal distribution of food/benefits
3: poor farmers couldn't afford new tech, so only those who could afford the tech could develop and by the products produced. (impoverished farmers further)
What did Ferguson mean when he described development in Lesotho as an "anti-politics machine"?
Development projects in Lesotho have consistently failed to achieve their stated objectives, mainly because they are based on a "construction" of the country that bears little relation to actual issues there. However, the projects do succeed in expanding the field of bureaucratic state power in people's everyday lives, which incidentally takes "poverty" as its point of entry and justification - launching an intervention that may have no effect on the poverty but does have other concrete effects.
scarcity as problem of social organization
overall, those who think _____ see these problems as emerging from the ways in which societies define their needs and organize their systems of production and distribution.
The commodification of the environment tends to involve three interrelated processes.
Change in property/tenure regime
Enclosure
Internalization of benefits/externalization of costs
Change in property/tenure regime
Property is a bundle of rights and responsibilities including: right to access, control, and own; right to buy, sell, and control, right to include/exclude others; right to benefit; right to exploit
Different groups may hold different sticks of the bundle
enclosure
Various tactics (fences, fines, force) to exclude resource rights of people living closest to the resource
Internalization of benefits/externalization of costs
Commodifying the environment brings quantitative and qualitative changes in the ways people use the environment, as capitalists produce different goods and services (commodities) to sell to those with purchasing power. These changes lead in turn to changes in the biophysical environment and its ability to supply various values
(Benefits tend to include: money, power, rights, authority
Costs tend to include: increased vulnerability to disaster, environmental degradation, physical displacement, dispossession)
scarcity as a problem of human population
there are too many people and not enough resources. Malthus -> as pop increases there won't be enough resources (optimistic perspective: as population increases, new tech will be developed and combat the scarcity) (pessimistic: resources will run out no matter what if pop. keeps growing.
scarcity as a problem of resources
there are enough resources but the distribution of such resources is unequal and creates scarcity. There is a carrying capacity for humans and unlike animals, human consumption is not equal (unequal distribution) so it's not a problem of population its a problem of distribution.
2 aspects of globalization
*Economic: Globalization is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration. the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross border movement of goods, services, technology, and capital
*Culture : The circulation of cultures enables individuals to partake in extended social relations that cross national and regional borders.
Rendering Technical
Solution becoming used before problems are found, focus on the things that western nations can solve.
example of Rendering Technical
lesotho's agriculture development when most of their income actually comes from labor in south africa
"70 percent of average rural household income is derived from wage labour in South Africa, while only six per cent comes from domestic crop production" (ferguson)