John Adams' Presidency - Domestic affairs
1. Established Cabinet level Navy Dept., 1798
2. Increased size of army and navy and increased taxes to support them.
3. Passed Alien Acts, 1798
4. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1799
a. Naturalization Act: Increased time for immigrants to become citizens from 5 to 14 years.
b. Alien Act: President could deport or imprison immigrants considered dangerous to U.S.
c. Sedition Act: Persons who wrote, published, or said anything against Congress or the President could be fined or imprisoned.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1799):
a. Two state legislatures condemned Alien and Sedition Acts as unconstitutional.
b. First formal expression of states' rights.
XYZ Affair (1797):
a. A negotiating mission to seek peace with France.
b. France agents wanted $250,000 bribe and $10 million loan (common practice in Europe).
c. Adams reported to Congress and anti-French public opinion developed.
d. U.S. and France in undeclared war in 1798
e. American warships and privateers captured 100 French ships.
f. Second mission ended conflict without money.