Ohio Science Fusion, Grade 8, Unit 3: The Restless Earth
Terms in this set (56)
a break in Earth's crust along which blocks of rock move
the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
tectonic plate boundary
where two or more tectonic plates meet
a place within Earth along a fault at which the first motion of an earthquake occurs
ground movements that occur when blocks of rock in Earth suddenly move and release energy
the return to rock of its original shape after elastic deformation
two tectonic plate that move past each other horizontally in opposite directions, slowly scraping and building energy
two tectonic plates move away from one another and allows the asthenosphere to move to the Earth's surface creating new lithosphere
Collision of tectonic plates, they push against each other, and the denser plate sinks. There are two types: continental-continental and continental-oceanic
the bending, tilting, and breaking of Rock due to stress
the center of the Earth, made of dense elements, divided into iner and outer sections
The Earth's shell-like thin compositional layer
The lower, more dense part of the mantle
the Earth's physical layer of solid thin mantle material below the lithosphere
the outermost physical layer of Earth
Earths thick middle compositional layer just below the crust
the energy of motion
large tectonic moving pieces of the lithosphere
Energy released by earthquakes that travel through rocks outward
the hypothesis that today's continents were once part of a single landmass
a system of ideas that explains many related observations about the natural world
the process by which new sea floor forms, where new rock forms
the process by which one tectonic plate is pulled beneath another plate
a change of the magnetic poles resulting in a pattern that provides evidence for seafloor spreading and plate tectonics.
a theory that states Earth's surface is made up of giant, moving slabs called tectonic plates
gravitational potential energy
Energy stored by objects due to their position above Earth's surface.
This is a process in which more dense materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials stay closer to the surface.
The thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle
the less dense crust that makes up Earth's continents
denser and thinner than continental crust, it lies underneath the ocean
The soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth. Scientists use this data to learn about the properties of Earth's interior.
A supercontinent containing all of Earth's land that existed about 225 million years ago.
The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges. As new seafloor rock forms, it pushes the older rock in opposite directions away from the ridge.
Pacific Ring of Fire
region around the Pacific Ocean where most of the volcanoes and earthquakes on Earth occur regularly
a current caused by the rising of heated fluid and sinking of cooled fluid; this is the engine that causes the tectonic plates to move
a mechanism that may contribute to plate motion; it involves the oceanic lithosphere sliding down the oceanic ridge under the pull of gravity
a mechanism that contributes to plate motion in which cool, dense oceanic crust sinks into the mantle and "pulls" the trailing lithosphere along
Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle and eventually breaks
stress that pushes rocks in parallel but opposite directions
form at continental-continental convergent plate Boundaries when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upward
ex. Alps in central Europe, Ural Mountains in Russia, Appalachians in the US and the Himalayas in Asia
A mountain formed by blocks of rock uplifted from normal faults.
continental volcanic arc
a chain of volcanic mountains formed at an ocean-continental convergent boundary ex. Cascade Mountains in the Pacific Northwest
volcanic island arc
a chain of volcanic islands generally located a few hundred kilometers from a trench where there is active subduction of one oceanic plate beneath another ex. Philippine Islands
Deep valley in the ocean floor that forms along a subduction zone ex. Marianas Trench
are long, deep valleys formed by the movement of the earth's crust along divergent plate boundaries ex. East African Rift Valley
On the ocean floor, rifting forms mid-ocean ridges
places where molten material from the mantle reaches the lithosphere far from tectonic plate boundaries forming islands ex. Hawaiian Islands
break in rock caused by tension forces, where rock above the fault surface moves down relative to the rock below the fault surface; form at divergent boundaries
a type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust; form at convergent boundaries
a type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion; form at transform boundaries
A giant wave usually caused by an earthquake beneath the ocean floor.
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