Topic 2: Sovereignty, Authority, and Power
Terms in this set (43)
the state defines who can and cannot use weapons and force
stable and long-lasting that help turn political ideas into actual policies
The ability of a state to carry out actions or policies within its borders independently
A group of people bound together through a common political identity
A state that contains two nations within its borders.
contains more than two nations within its borders
A people/nation that do not have a state
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's nation
A state that possesses more than one core area
Regimes endure beyond individual government and leaders. An example would be when a country's institutions and practices carry over time.
A system of government in which the people vote for legislative representatives who then select the leaders of the executive branch
a system of government in which the people vote for legislative reps and executive branch leaders
A prime minister coexists with a president who is directly elected by the people and holds a significant degree of power
head of state
a role that symbolizes the power and nature of the regime
head of government
a role that deals with the everyday tasks of running the government
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Separation of Powers
the division of power between branches
Decisions are made by a small group of political elites who hold political power without input from citizens. This type of regime can be ruled by one dictator, a hereditary monarch, a small group of aristocrats, or one political party.
In these regimes, the communist party controls everything from the government to the economy to social life.
An arrangement in which the government officials interact with people/groups outside the government before they set policy.
This is a system in which the state gives benefits/favors to people/groups in return for public support. It depends on individual patronage instead of organizations.
Totalitarian regimes have a strong ideological goal (such as communism) and often use violence as a technique for governance. There is a highly centralized part of the government and they seek to transform/absorb aspects of the state, society, and economy by gaining total control.
This is one form of non-democratic rule often used in Latin America, Africa, and parts of Asia. The military may intervene in states that are unstable or when violence is threatened. The military intervenes in politics and is often the only organization that can resolve the issues. However, military leaders often restrict civil rights/liberties and form authoritarian regimes.
This is usually how military rule begins. A coup d'état is a forced takeover the the government.
The way that a regime gets support from its citizens.
Pluralism is a principle of democracy in which power is split among multiple groups that compete for the ability to influence government policy.
There are two types of democracies; an indirect democracy has representatives who represent the people while in a direct democracy, the people have immediate say over decisions the government makes.
democracies involving patterns of government coordination of interest groups and government incorporation of interest groups into the actual governing process
An index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit, that measures the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are United Nations member states.
Legitimacy is the right to rule as determined by citizens.
This means that tradition determines who should rule and how. It often involves myths or legends, and ceremonies or rituals. This may involve power hand through generations.
This is based off of the dynamic personality of a leader or group. Charisma makes people want to follow someone, so a charismatic leader is more naturally inclined to be liked by the public. This can lead to people blindly following the government as well as propaganda. When the leader dies, there tends to be instability in the state.
This involves institutions (well-established laws and procedures) that outlive regimes and citizens believe that those in power are rightfully selected. There is a general acceptance of the rule of law.
Common law is based on past precedents set on tradition, practices, or legal laws set by the courts and interpreted through statutes, legal legislation, and past rulings.
Code law is based on a comprehensive system of written rules of law divided into commercial, civil, and criminal codes.
This refers to the collection of political beliefs, ideas, practices, and institutions that a government is based on. The government usually matches the values and practices of the citizens in it.
Consensual Political Culture
Consensual political culture is when citizens agree upon the process in which decisions are made by the government even if they disagree about those decisions. This accepts the legitimacy of the regime and solutions to problems.
Conflictual Political Culture
Conflictual political culture is when citizens are sharply divided, often on the legitimacy of the regime and the solutions to problems. Conflict is very difficult to avoid in this type of culture.
Political ideologies are the set of political values that an individual holds regarding the basic goals of government and politics.
Liberalism is when people value individual political and economical freedom above all else. Liberals want to maximize individual rights such as free speech or freedom of religion. They also believe that citizens can disagree with the government and change the decisions of leaders.
Socialism is like communism in the way that it shares the value of equality but also is influenced by the liberal value of freedom. Socialists accept and promote private ownership and the free market but believe the state must regulate the economy or even own key industries to provide benefits to the public.
Fascism devalues the idea of individual freedoms and believe that the state has the right and responsibility to influence society and the economy and to get rid of obstacles that might weaken them. Fascism also rejects the idea of equality, and believes that some are inferior while some are superior.
Religion has and will continue to be an important source of group identity. Many advanced democracies believe in the idea of separation of church and state but religion often is still a basis for interest groups and associations within the civil society.