57 terms

IB DP Geography Unit 3 - Global Resource Consumption and Security

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Biocapacity
the amount of land and water needed to provide resources for humanity
Biological diversity
the variability among living organisms
Biofuel power
method of energy production from either burning plant material, transforming plant matter into ethanol, or using digestion to convert biomass to methane
Carbon footprint
the total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities
Cartel
organization of people that sell the same goods that periodically meet to determine market prices; prices can be driven up by restricting the amount sold
Carrying Capacity
the maximum number of people that a region can support
Circular Economy
attempts to preserve natural capacity, optimize resource use and reduce loss through managing finite stocks and renewable flows
Club of Rome
an organization of the smartest people on the planet in the 1970's that called themselves "Neo-Malthusians" and created the Limits to Growth Model that examined the long term trends in population, agriculture, natural resources, industry and pollution
Core
the countries associated with being economic center of Earth; also called MEDC's or HIC's
Crude Oil
unrefined oil straight from the ground
Ecological Footprint
the hypothetical area of land (and water) required by a society, a group or an individual to fulfill all their resources needs and assimilate all their waste; measured in global hectares (gha)
Embedded water (Virtual water)
the way in which water is transferred from one country to another through exports
Emile Durkheim
French sociologist who built Thomas Malthus's Theory and believed that an increase in population density would lead to a greater division of labor and allow for an increased level of productivity (more efficient)
Energy from waste (EFW)
Waste to Energy (WTE); method of energy production that taps into landfills to capture methane and other combustible gases to burn
Energy security
access to clean, reliable and affordable energy sources for cooking, heating, lighting, communications and productive uses; a countries ability to obtain all of its energy needs
Esther Boserup
the first Anti-malthusian; she claimed that Knowledge and Technology will always increase the food supply because when the going gets though and a need arises, someone always finds an alternative solution
E-waste
trash associated with electronic devices
Food Security
the availability and access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet the dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life
Fossil Fuels
oil, natural gas, coal, oil shale
Geopolitics
political relations among nations relating to borders/territories/resources
Geosequestration
absorbing CO2 out of the air, compressing it into liquid form and injecting the liquid back into the ground.
Hydroelectric Power (HEP)
a reliable and renewable form of energy generation created by turbines that are rotated from the water pressure resulting from dams
Inceneration
burning trash
IPCC
Internal panel on climate change; an international organization of the smartest people on the planet; set up at the request of UN members and is dedicated to the task of providing the World with a scientific view of Climate change and its political and economic impacts
Kyoto Protocol
implemented the objectives of the UNFCCC; called on countries to reduce emissions based on a "common but differentiated" responsibility based on historic pollution; countries signed the document with a pledge to reduce emissions by a certain amount
Limits to Growth Model
a graph produced by the Club of Rome that examines the long term trends of population, agriculture, natural resources, industry, and pollution
Living Planet Index
measures the trends in Earth's Biological Diversity
Malthusian catastrophe
the point in time when the human population surpasses the resources available to sustain it, predicted by Thomas Malthus
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
the 8 goals developed by the UN with an initial target year of 2015 that formed a blueprint agreed to by all member countries
Neo-malthusian
a person that believes resources must be used sustainably to avoid a malthusian catastrophe and that technology can help us but not save us
Nexus
the interrelationship, interdependence and interactions between water, food and energy
Nuclear Power
a reliable and abundant source of energy created by heating up water with radioactive material, with a super harmful waste product
OPEC
organization of petroleum exporting countries; began 1960; produced 65% of global petroleum in 1979; produces under 40% today
Optimum Population
the population size that will produce the highest per capita Economic return
Overpopulated
when there are too many people in a country to maintain a high standard of living
Peak Oil
the year in which the world or an individual country reaches it highest level of oil population
Periphery
countries that are economically dependent on the Core countries; also called LEDCs and LICs
Renewable resources
resources that can be used more than once
reserves
resources that are accessible and useful, but not obtained from the ground yet
Resource
anything useful to humans
Semi-periphery
countries that are attempting to make the jump from the periphery to the core; also called NICs and MICs
solar power
method of energy production that harnesses the sun's rays with solar cells
Standard of Living
level of wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area
Sustainability
meeting the needs of today without compromising the needs of the future
Sustainable Development goals (SDGs)
17 UN goals with an initial target of 2030 that apply to all countries universally to mobilize efforts to end all forms of poverty, fight inequalities and tackle climate change, while ensuring that no one is left behind
Thomas Malthus
believed the planet has a finite population size that will be determined by the food supply; resources grow arithmetically while the population grows geometrically
Tidal power
method of energy production that used the ebbing tide to turn turbines
Three Gorges dam
the world's largest dam located on the Yangtze river in China
Tragedy of the Commons
explains the lack of control over the basic human resources are used
Underpopulation
more resources available than are being used by the population
UNFCCC
1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; established the premise that Global Warming exists and man-made green house gases have caused it; called for countries to commit to reducing their emissions
UNEP
United nations environmental program assists developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and promotes international convections
Virtual water (embedded water)
the way in which water is transformed from one country to another through its exports
Waste to Energy (WTE)( = energy from waste (EFW))
method of energy production that taps into landfills to capture methane and other combustible gases to burn
Water Footprint
the total volume of freshwater used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community or produced by the business
Water security
continuing access to safe drinking water and sanitation
Wind Power
method of energy production that uses available wind to turn turbines
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