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Education 210 Ch 8 & 9
Terms in this set (43)
A language spoken by the majority of the population of a territory.
Example: English in the USA
a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory
Example: Spanish in USA
for example it enhances cognitive functioning(a process of becoming aware of and processing ideas), memory and brain plasticity(the way experiences reorganize mental pathways).
Part of a human cognition and information processing ability which helps to manage attention especially when tasks compete for attention or resolving conflicts with different information inputs
Someone who has equal control in two languages.
It's problematic when it is used to categorize people.
The idea that some bilinguals might not have a full linguistic competence in either language.
Tries to label bilinguals from a deficit point of view.
Those situations in which children acquire two or more languages in their earliest childhood at the same time.
Those situations where individuals become bilinguals later in their lives, frequently through school based study.
a limited window of time in language development during which exposure to certain linguistic stimuli is necessary for language to be learned.
refers to the switching of two languages or two varieties of a language in a specific conversation.
a broad umbrella term that describes multilingual discursive practices in which bilinguals engage in order to make sense of the bilingual worlds.
the language that the a bilingual is more proficient in.
The loss of one language in order to learn another
Maintenance of the home language while the second, school or societal language is learned.
that is that prior knowledge of learners influences positively the acquisition of new knowledge.
Linguistic interdependence hypothesis
which states that instruction and promotion of a child's first language can lead to transfer to the second language.
Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP)
that two languages for bilinguals are not stored separately but there is a common underlying linguistic proficiency.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
refers to the ability of language minority children to speak fluently in informal contexts.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
refers to the academic language developed within schooling and literacy context often considered a high order language skills, it is the ability to use spoken and written language without relying on non-linguistic cues to convey complex meanings.
Second language instructional competence
which does not assign any cognitive superiority or higher status to language in schools. When students know enough of the second language to participate at the moment in that setting, and in that subject, they can be said to have......
broad term used to refer to any kind of bilingualism or multilingualism at a level of social organization beyond the individual or nuclear family.
The situation in which two languages coexist in the same society for different purposes/uses. Ferguson(1959) defined this as a separation of High and Low varieties.
Refers to those situations in which parents from a high socio-economic status without living in a bilingual society, decide to enroll their children in bilingual programs.
refers to those situations in which the members of a family speak two languages usually in a monolingual society.
One person-one language
parents want their children to know one language, so they won't be confused
It is a way for parents to separate the teaching of two languages to their children.
which describes those individuals who can understand several languages but do not speak all of those languages.
In its simplest definition refers to the ability to use at least two languages, varieties or codes
Policy ch 9
Many people think first of lawmakers who draft and pass legislation and politicians who espouse platforms on various social issues; however, teachers are on the front lines of language policy since the classroom is a key site where policy becomes action.
community's linguistic practices and beliefs about language as well as interventions to plan or change those practices and beliefs.
De facto language policy
society may already have norms and expectations about how languages should be used and taught which have the effect of "policy".
De Jure Language Policies
is when there are actual norms and expectations about how languages should be used and taught and these norms and standards are set forth in legal documents.
is language planning that deals with linguistics elements of a language such as standardizing grammar and spelling or developing vocabulary.
is language planning that addresses functional aspects of a language such as its role as a national language or medium of instruction in schools.
is language planning that relates to the allocation of resources and incentives to support individuals in learning a language
Lau v. Nichols (1974)
was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court unanimously decided that the lack of supplemental language instruction in public school for students with limited English proficiency violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Structured English Immersion (SEI)
is a technique for rapidly teaching English to English Language Learners.
legal rights related to the use and learning of specific languages.
linguistic human rights
Skutnabb Kangas 2000 states that there are fundamental language rights that are considered essential to human dignity.
consists of areas in language policies that can be leveraged or exploited to promote multilingual education.
orientation frames a language issue that needs to be fixed and it may even position a particular group of speakers as presenting a challenge.
orientation positions students' existing linguistic abilities in a positive way, highlighting their ability to accessing opportunities for learning and social engagement.
orientation emphasizes that students have legal rights with respect to language learning and development.
A metaphor that draws upon ideas from environmental ecology to understand articulate interrelationships between languages and speakers of languages.
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