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KAPLAN NURSING ENTRANCE EXAM-HEMATOLOGICAL SYSTEM

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The Hematologic System is?
made up of the Blood, the Spleen, Bone Marrow, and the Liver
Hematology is
the study of blood. and all its components
The principal component of the hematologic system is
The blood
Blood is made up of three main components:
red blood cells, white blood cells and plasma
erythrocytes are
the most common blood cells
White Blood Cells, or leukocytes, are?
one of the body's defenses
There are two types of WBC's:
granulocytes and agranulocytes
There are three types of granulocytes:
neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils
Agranulocytes include?
lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages
what defend against bacterial or fungal infection?
Neutrophils
this wbc primarily deal with parasitic infections?
Eosinophils
WBC chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine?
Basophils
Agranulocytes contain?
lysosomes which are small vesicles containing digestive enzymes
Lymphocytes come in three types;
B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and NK cells; cytotoxic cells that participate in the innate immune response.
which WBC produce antibodies in the humoral immune response?
B-lymphocytes,
which WBC participate in the cell-mediated immune response?
T-lymphocytes
WBC that participate in the innate immune response?
NK cells; cytotoxic cells
What present pieces of pathogens to T cells so that the pathogens may be recognized again and killed?
Monocytes
WBC that are monocytes that have migrated out of the blood stream and into the body tissues?
Macrophages
components of blood?
Plasma, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and platelets
what is Hematocrit?
The percentage of blood volume taken up by RBCs
plasma PH?
7.35-7.45
Functions of blood?
Transportation, regulation and protection
plasma composition
90% water, 9% Proteins 1% minerals.
Where is albumin produced?
The liver
what is most important for osmotic pressure?
albumin
transports materials through the blood and are produced in the liver?
Globulins
Very important for clotting and is produced in the liver?
Fibrinogen
RBC requires?
Protein, iron, folic acid, and B12
stem cells that give rise to all the formed elements in the blood
hemocytoblast
What blood cell is the only true cell?
White blood cell because it has a nucleus
Androgen stimulate?
RBC production
what is the function of white blood cells?
phagocytosis and immunity
what part of blood is important for hemostasis?
Plasma
events of hemostasis are?
Vascular spasms, platelet adhesion, platelet release of chemicals, coagulation
what is the clotting cascade?
clotting factor X, prothrobin (converts to thrombin), fibrinogen.
list anticoagulants
antithrombin III, heprin,
what are Thrombocytes?
Blood platelets
there are 3 steps in platelet plug formation
platelet adhesion, release reaction and platelet aggregation.
Most common anemia
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Polycythemia is?
too many RBC
What is a platelet disorder?
Hemophilia
Chemicals involved in clot formation?
tissue factor, prothrombinase, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin
Plasmin does what?
breaks down clots
hemoglobin has?
4 heme and 4 globin
kidneys regulate what?
Blood volume
What does Angiotensin II do?
-Increases aldosterone production in adrenal cortex
When is renin secreted?
Low BP, low blood volume, low HCO3. (Metabolic acidosis)
what is pernicious anemia?
most common cause of B12 deficiency
3 conditions that decrease hemoglobin?
anemia, hemorrhage, fluid volume excess
2 Conditions that increase hemoglobin levels
dehydration and polycthemia
what is hemolysis?
Destruction of red blood cells
What enzyme breaks down blood clots?
Plasmin
Universal blood recipient?
type AB blood
what is produced by the hemolysis of RBC?
bilirubin-pigment released by the liver
what is included in the hematological system?
bone marrow, blood, spleen and lymph system
hematopoiesis occurs?
in the red bone marrow, flat and irregular bone
where is ferritin and hemosiderin stored?
liver, spleen, bone marrow and macrophages
the majority of the bodies iron is stored as?
Heme
what causes blood pressure?
hydrostatic pressure (created by the heart) forces blood to move through the arteries
what two mechanisms assist in returning blood to the heart?
muscular pump and respiratory pump
what is hyperglycemia?
High blood sugar
what is hypoglycemia?
Low Blood Sugar
the artery that supplies blood to the small intestine and upper portion of the colon?
superior mesenteric artery
as blood flows through a capillary what causes fluid to leave the capillary?
Blood pressure
What causes fluid to enter the capillary?
osmosis
To determine mean aterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output is multiplied by?
Peripheral resistance
in this system the heart pumps blood out to the lungs from the right ventricle so that gas exchange can occur.
pulmonary system
in this system the flow of blood travels through the system of blood vessels that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the tissues of the body and back to the right atrium
systemic system
the largest percentage of plasma is?
water
the most important function of albumin in the plasma is?
transport other substances
what type of tissue is blood considered?
connective tissue
the liquid component of blood with clotting factors removed is?
serum
albumin, globulins, fibrinogen are all?
plasma proteins
the form of hemoglobin that has carbon dioxide attached is called?
carbaminohemoglobin
In addition to transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide, hemoglobin also transports?
Nitric oxide
Globin breaks down into what?
amino acids
old damaged or defective erythrocytes are removed from the blood by?
macrophages
jaundice buildup comes from too much?
bilirubin
which leukocytes main function is phagocytosis?
neutrophils
for someone having a coronary thrombosis, which chemical is most effective to dissolve the clot?
TPA
People with type O blood are known as?
universal blood donors
A-negative blood can probably donated to a person with?
A + positive blood
Which condition causes leukocytosis?
leukemia
the neutrophil count is often greatly increased in a patient with?
a bacterial infection
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