Adjective, Adverb, and Noun Clauses

Contains a Subject and a Verb
Independent Clause
can stand alone and be a sentence
Dependent Clause
cannot stand alone
Adverb Clause
Begin and answer the question
When~while, when, whenever, as, before, after, since, until
Where~ where, wherever
Why~Because, since, as, so that
How~as if, as though
On what condition~ if, unless, though, although
Adjective Clause
Begin with
Relative Pronouns: who, whose, whom, which, that
Relative adverbs: where, when, why
Noun Clause
Begin with:
relative pronouns who, whose, whom, which, what, ever form
relative adverbs: why, where, when and how
relative adjectives: whose, which, whichever, what
Subordinating Conjuctions: that, the fact that, if and whether
no subject OR verb and acts as one part of speech
Infinitive phrase
to + verb (active) (used as a noun, adjective and adverb)
present participle, ing of verb thats used as a noun: DO, OP. SN, IO.
Present Participle phrase
pres. par. using ing. used as an adjective
Past Participle phrase
ed or irregular verb form. used as and adjective.