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Contains a Subject and a Verb

Independent Clause

can stand alone and be a sentence

Dependent Clause

cannot stand alone

Adverb Clause

Begin and answer the question
When~while, when, whenever, as, before, after, since, until
Where~ where, wherever
Why~Because, since, as, so that
How~as if, as though
On what condition~ if, unless, though, although

Adjective Clause

Begin with
Relative Pronouns: who, whose, whom, which, that
Relative adverbs: where, when, why

Noun Clause

Begin with:
relative pronouns who, whose, whom, which, what, ever form
relative adverbs: why, where, when and how
relative adjectives: whose, which, whichever, what
Subordinating Conjuctions: that, the fact that, if and whether


no subject OR verb and acts as one part of speech

Infinitive phrase

to + verb (active) (used as a noun, adjective and adverb)


present participle, ing of verb thats used as a noun: DO, OP. SN, IO.

Present Participle phrase

pres. par. using ing. used as an adjective

Past Participle phrase

ed or irregular verb form. used as and adjective.

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