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Chapter 17: Special Senses
Terms in this set (32)
Which of the following are responsible for producing new olfactory receptors?
Taste buds consist of supporting cells, gustatory receptor cells, and basal cells.
The cis to trans conversion of retinal when photopigments respond to light is called:
Which is the correct order of events of sound transmission through the ear?
1. sound waves strike the eardrum
2. the ear ossicles vibrate
3. hair cells of the organ of Corti vibrate
4. the perilymph in the cochlea moves
5. sound waves enter the external auditory canal
-5, 4, 3, 2, 1
-1, 2, 3, 4, 5
-5, 1, 2, 4, 3
-5, 2, 1, 3, 4
5, 1, 2, 4, 3
Which structure within the ampulla contains hair cells that are involved in dynamic equilibrium?
-are second-order, multipolar neurons.
-are also called basal cells.
-use olfactory hairs to transduce chemical signals from odorants.
-are second-order, multipolar neurons and are also called basal cells are both correct.
-are second-order, multipolar neurons, are also called basal cells and use olfactory hairs to transduce chemical signals from odorants are all correct.
use olfactory hairs to transduce chemical signals from odorants
-function only at low light levels.
-allow color vision.
-are concentrated at the periphery of the retina.
-are most critical for night vision.
allow color vision
The hair cells responsible for hearing are located on the ________; their hair bundles are embedded in the ________
-tectorial membrane; tympanic membrane
-tympanic membrane; basilar membrane
-basilar membrane; tectorial membrane
-vestibular membrane; tectorial membrane
-basilar membrane; vestibular membrane
basilar membrane; tectorial membrane
Which has a receptor that is a first order neuron?
Select the correct pathway of sound waves from the auricle to the spiral organ of Corti?
-external auditory canal → tympanic membrane → maleus → incus → stapes → oval window → perilymph
-external auditory canal → tympanic membrane → stapes → incus → maleus → secondary tympanic membrane → endolymph
-eustachian tube → tympanic membrane → incus → maleus → stapes → oval window → endolymph
-internal auditory canal → tympanic membrane → eustachian tube → maleus → incus → stapes → secondary tympanic membrane → perilymph
-internal auditory canal → tympanic membrane → maleus → incus → stapes → secondary tympanic membrane → Perilymph
external auditory canal → tympanic membrane → maleus → incus → stapes → oval window → perilymph
Axons of which cells make up the optic nerve?
-rods and cones
-none of these choices
Which of the following is NOT true about rods?
-in the light, they are hyperpolarized
-they release the inhibitory neurotransmitter glutamate
-their photopigment, rhodopsin, undergoes bleaching and isomerization in the light
-they are responsible for night vision
-they are most numerous in the central fovea
they are most numerous in the central fovea
Which of the following is not a primary taste sensation?
Axons of ganglion cells in the nasal half of each retina extend to the thalamus on opposite side.
The point of greatest visual acuity is the
The blind spot is the area where
-there are more rods than cones
-there are more cones than rods
-the optic nerve exits the eye
-the iris attaches to the cornea
the optic nerve exits the eye
Olfactory epithelium is found
-throughout the nasal cavity.
-only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity.
-only in the inferior portion of the nasal cavity.
-from the vestibule to the pharynx.
-only in the mid-nasal ridges.
only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity
_____ bind the odorants and begin signal transduction.
-Basal stem cells
-Gustatory receptor cells
______ receptors are primarily used for detecting light rays under bright light conditions.
Which is the transparent layer on the anterior of the eyeball through which the iris can be observed?
The ______ regulates the amount of light entering the eyeball through the pupil.
The first step in the visual transduction process that occurs in the retina is
-activation of amacrine cells.
-absorption of scattered light by the pigmented epithelium.
-interruption of the dark current.
-absorption of light by photopigments.
-generation of action potentials in the optic nerve.
absorption of light by photopigments
What ear structure vibrates back and forth when sound waves strike?
Dynamic equilibrium is maintained by the
-utricle and saccule.
Opsin looks colorless when trans-retinal is separated from opsin. This is termed
Which statement accurately describes the changes in the membrane potential of a photoreceptor cell when light rays strike its photopigments?
-The photoreceptor cell undergoes rapid depolarization.
-The photoreceptor cell undergoes hyperpolarization.
-A graded potential proportional to the intensity of the light stimulus occurs in the photoreceptor cell.
-No changes in the membrane potential occur.
-The photoreceptor cell creates action potentials at a frequency proportional to the intensity of the light stimulus.
the photoreceptor cell undergoes hyperpolarization
Otoliths are located in the
-macula of the saccule
-cupula of the crista
-tectorial membrane of the spiral organ
-basilar membrane of the cochlear duct
-hair cells and supporting cells of semicircular ducts
macula of the saccule
Select the sequence of events for the olfactory pathway
1. a second messenger opens cation channels (Na+ and Ca+2)
2. depolarization of olfactory receptor cells occurs
3. odorant binds to olfactory receptor protein
4. G protein activates cyclic adenosine monophosphate
-1, 2, 3, 4
-4, 2, 1, 3
-3, 4, 1, 2
-2, 1, 4, 3
-3, 1, 2, 4
3, 4, 1, 2
Which is not an event that occurs during the process of gustation?
-salty foods trigger opening of the sodium ion channels
-a tastant is dissolved in saliva
-the site of taste transduction occurs at the basal cells
-hydrogen ion channels are triggered by sour foods
-depolarization causes release of neurotransmitters
the site of taste transduction occurs at the basal cells
There is a white outer covering of the eye known as the
There are two structures of the eye which help to focus light on the retina. They are the
-choroid and iris
-iris and cornea
-optic disc and lens
-cornea and lens
cornea and lens
The aqueous humor
-develops during the embryonic period and is not replaced.
-is found only in the posterior chamber of the eye.
-accumulates "floaters" as a person ages.
-nourishes the cornea and the lens.
-holds the retina against the choroid.
nourishes the cornea and the lens
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