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Terms in this set (53)
the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, technological, social and cultural change
Four Concepts of Globalization
Change, Interdependence, Sequence, Process
Concepts of Globalization: Change
transformation of human society, reorganization, revolution. being changed from industrial-information revolution
Concepts of Globalization: Interdepedence
linkages, relationships, networks. People are becoming more dependent on others
Concepts of Globalization: Sequence
chronology or order of events. moving levels, computer- age, nanotechnology age
Concepts of Globalization: Process
a progression or an ongoing phenomenon. The whole world hasn't been globalized yet.
Interdependence associated w/ globalization
operates in a multitude of ways but often this relationship seems very unequal in nature among places and regions
Globalization is shrinking the world by
reducing transportation and communication times and costs between places and regions
Movement & Diffusion
movement of people and commodities; diffusion of technology, information, ideas, disease. By: People, Commodities, Money/Capital
Is Globalization new?
the basic framework has been underway since the inception of the modern world-system in the sixteenth century Europe.
When did globalization begin
Through regional trade and migration, globalization established worldwide trade networks in the 1500's
Framework of Globalization circa 19th century (global events)
-International agencies or institution
-Advanced global communication networks
-Standardized system of global time
-international competition for prizes
-international laws and treaties
-international shared notion of citizenship and human rights
Globalization circa 2nd half of the 20th century
significant turning point because of
-the influence of WWII and the cold war
-the computer revolution
we live in a highly homogenized world whereby people,places, and their cultures have become similar in terms of their features and behaviours
placelessness, shrinking world, global village, global community, demise of distance
Hyperglobalists believe that ________ and _______ will help trickle down the prosperity and benefits of a growing global economy
Capitalist free market and trade liberalization
Neoliberal economic policies
will facilitate the spread of development, democracy, liberty, and human right practices throughout the world
Hyperglobalists believe that the nation states...
have lost its power as the current stage of globalziation signals the end of the national government and the emergence of economic denationalization
Transformationalist argue that globalization..
is a profound transformative force that is changing the world order, including the transformation of economies, technological and ecological systems
Transformationalist argue that the future trajectory of globalization
is uncertain and they do not see any difference between the way the world is integrated today and as in the past--globalization is a long-term historical process
Skeptics claim that hyperglobalists...
views about the world today are nothing but exaggerations
Skeptics claim that the..
current phase of global economic intergration is nothing new as the world was more integrated economically in the 19th century than it is today.
Skeptics claim that "globalization"
when understood as a worldwide process of integration of national economies, simply do not stand up to the historical record of the late colonial period. the world was just as integrated and open than it is today.
Skeptics claim that nation states
is still powerful and in control as globalization in fact is not nearly as extensive nor as sweeping in its consequences as many contemporary observers beleive.
Skeptics claim that the worls is leaning towards...
regionalization instead of globalization and point to NAFTA, EU, AU and ASEAN
Skeptics claim that the define globalization as...
increasing interconnectedness does not mean we have or will ever achieve complete homogenization of all human activities worldwide.
Skeptics claim that the worlds today...
is highly uneven in its form and impact that it was in the past with regard to its level of economic development, technological advancement, social system, and political integration
hybridization of goods and services, and cultural symbols.
the capital world-system which originated in the 16th century involves the establishment of trade/business links with Asia, Africa, and the Americas
World-System Theory: integration of the world's economy through...
the expansion of free-market capitalism
-the most dominant centers in the world.
-developed/weathly countries with postindustrial economy
-possess advanced technologies
-centers of innovation in the global economy
-highly urbanized communities
organized high wage labor markets
-high consumption levels
-underdeveloped poor countries with primary economies
-labor-intesive, low wage employment
-usage of un-free labor/pre-industrial technologies
-rural agrarian society
-low consumption levels
-high level of poverty
-buffer countries (newly industrialized countries)
-share features of core + periphery
-often exploited by the core countries
explains the cyclical realignment of the global core-periphery relationships.
-periodic changes in the system from a single hegemonic power to the group of competing countries or centers of power
World-System Theory suggest that globalization...
does not simply lead to the homogenization of the world's economies as the benefits of this process are not equally shared among the world's regions
World-System Theory state that..
world-system theory basically explains the increasingly interconnectedness of places, countries and regions through trade liberalization which is often dominated by some nation-states.
World-System Theory stated that modern world-systems has always...
been a capitalist world-economy since the 16th century
He defines the capitalist world-economy as
The basic institutions are: "the markets, the firms that compete in the markets; the multiple states, within an interstate system; the households; the classes; and the status-groups [cultural identities]"
Neoliberal Institutionalism Theories
These theories simply conceptualized the world as a system of institutions, which is made up of well organized and interconnected economic, political, and cultural
Economic institutions include...
transnational corporations (TNCs), the World Bank, the IMF, WTO, OPEC, etc. (multinational)
Examples of institutions are...
Political institutions include nation-states, the United Nations, the G8 (political leaders of the most important economies), NATO, etc. (controlling as a group)
Cultural institutions the media, film, music and entertainment industries, religious organizations, etc.
Two types of institutional theories are . . .
-The theory of the global systems of institutions
-The theory of complex interdependence
The theory of complex interdependence state that...
The global society is connected by multiple channels including governmental/state agencies (interstate relations); and non-governmental and transnational organizations (transnational) - this means that actors other than states participate directly in world politics
The theory of complex interdependence's main characteristics are...
-The absence of hierarchy among issues in the global society - this means the agenda of interstates relationships consists of multiple issues.
-Currently, force has become an ineffective instrument of policy for resolving issues in the world in which complex interdependence exists.
The neoliberal institutionalism theories suggest that ...
the world consists of a more complex system of institutions of interdependent states, TNCs, NGOs, cultural organizations, etc. that influence the process of globalization. -linking and shaping up our countries and our world.
World Polity Theory
the contemporary global society is organized as a polity (an organized society such as a nation or city) - that is a "world polity" and it associated culture
The World polity refers to the...
conceptualization of the world as a unitary social system (a singular polity) with a distinct culture, embedded in global social organizations.
This world polity provides a set of rules and values that...
guide our way of life and the way institutions (economic, social, political, etc.) deal with common problems
-run an economy (free-market capitalism)
-run a state or form a government (democracy)
-operate a financial institution (no government intervention)
World Culture Theory
The views of the proponents of this theory tend to differ from those of the world polity group. The former group focuses on the world culture but stresses diversity instead of homogeneity.
World Culture Theory argue that the..
world society is not governed by a particular set of rules of values [and rules] but by the confrontation of different ways of organizing these relationships
World Culture Theory states that the process of homogenizing...
world cultures is rather creating cultural heterogeneity whereby cultural "sameness" and "difference" is clashing or competing with each other across the world.
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