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Unit 1: Energy Transformations
Terms in this set (48)
is stored energy and the energy of position--gravitational energy. There are several forms of potential energy.
stored energy an object has due to its position.
is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. Batteries, biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and are examples of stored chemical energy. Chemical energy is converted to thermal energy when we burn wood in a fireplace or burn gasoline in a car's engine.
is energy stored in objects by tension. Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of stored mechanical energy.
is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom--the energy that holds the nucleus together. Very large amounts of energy can be released when the nuclei are combined or split apart.
the process of atoms splitting into several smaller fragments. These fragments, or fission products, are about equal to half the original mass.
the process of atoms/elements fusing together. Happens in stars/sun
is energy stored in an object's height. The higher and heavier the object, the more gravitational energy is stored. When you ride a bicycle down a steep hill and pick up speed, the gravitational energy is being converted to motion energy. Hydropower is another example of gravitational energy, where the dam "piles" up water from a river into a reservoir.
is motion--of waves, electron, atoms, molecules, substances, and objects.
energy a moving object has because of its motion. Dependent on object's mass and speed.
is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. Radiant energy includes visible light, x-rays, gamma rays and radio waves. Light is one type of radiant energy. Sunshine is radiant energy, which provides the fuel and warmth that make life on Earth possible.
or heat, is the vibration and movement of the atom and molecules within substances. As an object is heated up, its atoms and molecules move and collide faster. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy in the earth.
is energy stored in the movement of objects. The faster they move, the more energy is stored. It takes energy to get an object moving, and energy is released when an object slows down. Wind is an example of motion energy. A
Example of Motion Energy
Wind. A dramatic example motion is a car crash, when the car comes to a total stop and releases all its motion energy at once in an uncontrolled instant.
is the movement of energy through substances in longitudinal (compression/rarefaction) waves. Sound is produced when a force causes an object or substance to vibrate--the energy is transferred through the substance in a wave. Typically, hte energy in sound is far less than other forms of energy.
is delivered by tiny charged particles called electrons, typically moving through a wire. Lightning is an example of electrical energy in nature, so powerful that it is not confined to a wire.
What are the effects of energy on a micro and macro level?
Micro-when heat is added and molecules move faster
Macro-looking at it as it is.
a physical substance that occupies space and possesses mass.
power derived from the utilization of physical or chemical resources
total kinetic energy of the particles hat make up a substance. Adding heat to an object, adds energy. Increase of heat, causes the object to expand. Heat flows from warm to cool materials.
amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of a material to 1C
When heat is added to a substance, its particles vibrate.....
faster over a greater distance causinf the material to expand.
sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in an object (KE=PE).
Dependent on the number of molecules.
In thermal energy, the kinetic energy equals....
the movement of particles that make up an object.
between the two molecules, less potential energy
within the bonds in the molecule, greater potential energy
a substance with definite volume
a substance with definite volume definite shape, particles can flow freely within the subject, but attractions between particles keep escaping. Takes shape of container.
a substance with definite shape and volume. Particles have very little attraction for each other, can move freely. Takes size and shape of container.
high energy state of matter which atoms loose their elections and exist as electron free neuclei in a sea of electrons, charged state of matter. Requires temperatures greater than 1 million C.
exists as stars, can be created for a brief time by very powerful lightning bolts (1 million + volts).
add heat to substance equals move faster. If enough energy, they will break the attractions holding them in that state and move up to the next state. Solid--Liquid--Gas (Ice--Water--Vapor)
Removing heat from a substance causes its partiles to slow down and allows the attractions to being to effect the particles drawing them together to a lower state.
During a phase change, the temperature remains constant because the energy changes are associated with making/breaking attractions, not with particle movements.
solid to gas
gas to solid
When heat is added to a substance, its particles....
the transfer of thermal energy by collisions between particles in matter. Solid--particles are TOUCHING
transfer of thermal energy in a fluid by the movement of warmer and cooler fluid (liquid/gas--anything that slows) from place to place. CURRENTS.
transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. Vacuum through space.
of the particle near the flame increases. Transferred when particles collide with neighboring particles.
transferred by collisions between particles with more kinetic energy and particles with less kinetic energy.
amount of energy absorbed, reflected and transmitted. Depends on type of material. In a solid, liquid, or gas, radiant energy can transfer through the space between molecules.
Law of Conversion Energy
can be changed from one form to another, cannot be destroyed. Energy remains CONSTANT.
Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, a liquid differs from a gas because the particles of the liquid.................
Have stronger forces of attraction between them.
Volcanoes and plate tectonics are caused by.......
Elements and compounds are considered to be.....
True or False?
The first law of Thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed.
True or False?
Density plays a large part in the process of conduction.
True or False?
For any two objects, the one with the higher temperature sometimes has more thermal energy.