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reaty of Paris (1763)
This is the treaty that ended the French and Indian War. France gave up claims to Canada and all lands east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain. Spain claimed territory west of the Mississippi River and ceded Florida to Great Britain.
Albany Plan of Union
This was proposed by Benjamin Franklin. It called for a Grand Council made up of delegates chosen by colonial legislatures for a three-year term. Presiding officer was a president0general who was appointed by the king; he had the power to veto. Council was responsible for defensive, westward expansion, Native Americans, and taxation. The plan was rejected by the colonies and the British.
Stamp Act
First direct tax imposed by Parliament on the English colonies. This taxed newspapers, pamphlets, and other printed materials or legal documents in the form of revenue stamps. It raised the issue of no taxation without representation. It was repealed because of opposition both in the colonies and Great Britain.
Stamp Act Congress
Representatives of 9 colonies met to protest the Stamp Act. They issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. They saw the Stamp Act as a violation of colonists' rights as Englishmen; only the colonial legislature had the power to tax, not the British courts.
Virtual Representation
The colonist were mad that they didn't have enough representaion in parliament said "taxation without representation" felt unfair. Parliament rebuddled with the theory of virtual representation which said that parliament represented all british subjects regarless of who elected them. The colonist knew that their representation was very small and they wanted to make their own taxes, but british refused.
Declaratory Act
This was enacted by Parliament the same day as the Stamp Act was repealed. It stated that Parliament continued to have authority to make laws binding the colonies. Parliament determined to straighten its hold on the colonies after giving in to pressure on the Stamp Act.
Townshend Acts
William Pitt was ill so next in line for colonial affairs was Charles townshend, who drafted these acts. 1. They taxed good imported directly from Britain. 2.some of the taxes collected were set aside to pay the tax collectors-took away ability of colonial assemblies to decide wages of governtment officials to ge their way. 3. Set up more british courts and a few new government positions to enforce these new rules. 4. Instituted writs of assistance- license that gave british power to search any place they suspectd smuggled Response to this was the massachusettes circular letter- which were sent to all colonies asking to protest and boycott.
Non-Importation Agreement
This was the series of commercial restrictions adopted by American colonists to protest British revenue policies. The Stamp Act triggered the first non-importation agreement. It was to protest taxation without representation. British repealed the Stamp Act within a year after facing pressure from these agreements. After Parliament imposed the Townshend duties, colonist implemented a second non-importation agreement, again banning British imports from their docks. It led to Parliament repealing the Townshend Acts on everything except tea. They were important starters of the American Revolution and helped awaken colonists to their emerging national identify.
Boston Massacre
A fight between the citizens of Boston and the British troops. A mass of Boston citizens crowded by the Customs House, when Boston shots fired killed 5. It helped spark the rebellion that led to the Revolutionary War. A heavy British military presence in Boston led to a tense situation that led to this incident. Most of the soldiers acquitted in the civilian court; John Adams was their lawyer.
Tea Act
It was designed to prop up the East India Company, which was facing bankruptcy from millions of pounds of unsold tea, by giving them monopoly on the tea sold in the colonies. The tea was to be shipped directly to the colonists (no middle man) and was sold at a bargain price. However, American leaders found reason to believe that his act was a propaganda to buy support for the taxes already in force. It was also harmful to the colonial tea merchants and those smuggling tea from Holland. Britain however was determined to be tough with this after bowing to pressure on the Stamp Acts. Colonists turned the tea ships back to Britain or left it to rot by the docks.It would launch the final spark (Boston Tea Party) to the revolutionary movement.
Boston Tea Party
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Coercive Acts
AKA the Intolerable Acts. They were a set of five laws passed by the British Parliament to punish Boston and Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. It triggered outrage and resistance in the colonies and led to the American Revolution. Britain hoped that these harsh measures would make an example out of Massachusetts and reverse the trend of colonial resistance. It closed the ports of Boston until the tea was paid for and limited Massachusetts' ability to self-govern. British officials charged with capital cases had to be tried in England.
First Continental Congress
albany union- This was the first gathering of Americans as a response to the coercive acts. It was a group to complain about them and how unfair they are. It was a meeting in philadalphia- unified America with one cause. All colonies except Georgia came. Not a unified body. Came op with a restrained declaration of rights and resolves-define American greivences.
Second Continental Congress
Weeks after battle of Lexington and concord prepared for war by establishing the continental army, printing money and creating government offices to supervise policy. Chose george Washington to pead the army. They are the government that governs after the revolutionary war is won. They made the articles of confederation.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The first military battle of the American Revolution. They were fought in the towns of Lexington and Concord. They marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between Britain and the colonists. British troops were given secret orders to capture military supplies that were in Concord. Colonists received word weeks before the expedition and moved them to other locations. The colonial militias (Minutemen) were outnumbered at Lexington and fell back, preceding again in Concord. British suffered significant casualties returning from Concord where they destroyed some equipment.
Battle of Saratoga
In October 1777 americans won this victory against general john Burgoyne who surrended 5700 british troups- this victory convince the French that it was worth allying with the Americans whichc ultimately helped them win their independence.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
It ended the American Revolutionary War. Britain recognized the independence of the United States with the Mississippi River as the western boundary. US was given fishing rights and British troops were to be removed from American soil. All debts owed to either side were valid. US reassured the states that Loyalist property would be restored.
State Constitutions
States wrote a new constitution to replace their colonial charters after they declared independence. Most called for bicameral legislature and a governor (usually one year term for elected officials). You had to own property or pay a certain amount of tax to vote. Individual liberties protected people (including freedom of religion), but did not separate church and state.
Jewish Political Rights
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Articles of Confederation
This was the first constitution of the freed America. The colonists were worried of being too much like the English so they gave way too much power to the individual states and not enough to the central power, congress. Congress was unable to tax, or manage trade. Any amendmants needed the consent of every state- which was practically impossble which created situations where one state would hold others hostage and the congress could not do anything about it and ultimately had no control over any of the states. It caused economic damage because they were unable to tax, and unable to pay off important debts. They were also unable to get revenue fom inter-trade and trade with toher countries because each state was pratcaly on its own. People rebelled because they felt the unfairness of articles. One in particular was shays rebellion. Which brought awareness to congress of needs for change. Some good things wre the northwest ordinances- which was the territory given to congress. Able to set laws and expand and get revenue by selling them. They also created a new sense of unity within the states.
Ordinance of 1784
.led for the land west of the Appalachian Mountains, north of the Ohio iver aRnd east of the Mississippi River to be divided into separate states. However, it did not define the mechanism by which the land would become states, or how the territories would be governed or settled before they became states
Land Ordinance of 1785
Provided the systematic survey and sale of the region west of pennsylavania and north of ohio river.- began the rectangular grid pattern of land settlement. Income from land sales promisced help redce the national debt.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Political organization of the region. First under congressionally appointed officials and then under popularly elected territorial assemblies. They open territory would not remain under colonies subordinance but would be fully incorporated as new states into expanding American nation. Contained a bill of rights- Prohibited the importation of new slaves. Set specific regulations concerning the conditions under which rerritored can aplly for statehood, gave congresss more political clout. The native ameircans were not very happy though. They felt that Americans were claiming their land without their consent.
Alien and Sedation Acts
..• As prospects for real war increase, the Federalists pass a series of laws it neded to protect nation security. What they actually were, were an excuse for cracking down on the political opposition.- extend residency requirements- expand power of pres to deport alien living ni us that mabe dangerous or against law- any american citizen conspire against gov. gets fined or imprisoned
Election of 1800
this was the jefferson election.
Loyalists
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Newburgh Conspiracy
spring: troops are mad that they are not paid for their duties. George washington says calm down nothing we can do right now- so they calm down. summer:again still not getting paid so they chase after congress- really embarassing.
Shay's Rebellion
This was rebellion of Daniel ShayDaniel Shay, a poor farmer, (previously an officer who resigned in 1780 because of the delay in pay), went to the legislature of Massachusetts to prevent these foreclosures. Its denial of his request led him to start Shay's Rebellion (1786-1787). Shay assembled a group of poor farmers like himself and attempted to capture a federal arsenal. In the end they are caught, and Shay is charged with treason. The absence of a central government allows this incident, and many like it, to occur. This rebellion may not have made a change in policy, but it provided ammunition for leaders at that time to think about the need for a stronger central governemnt.
Annapolis Convention
it was clear that the government lacked sufficent authority under the articles of confederation so Alexandler Hamilton convened this convention to discuss revision of articles of confederation but only 5 delegates showed up.
Federal Convention
constitutional convention, philidalphia convention. may 1787 delegates representing every state except rhode island began assembling in philedalphia., 1787. followed the Articles of Confederation in hopes to revise it but then decided to start over and created the United States Constitution. big federalists who were there were aledxander hamilton, james madison, george washington came.
Virginia Plan
the design of the new national government.set conventions agenda and outlined a potentially powerful national governemnt. belived , Plan presented to the Constitutional Convention that proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature, lower house elected by the people and upper house(senate), chosen by the lower house from nominess propsed by state legislatures. this favored bigger states.(proportional representation rather than equal representation of states)- plan also called for a president,named by congress, a national judiciary and a council of revision( to review the constitutionality of laws)
New Jersey Plan
the smaller states were not happy with this for it favored the bigger states. therefor william patternson introduced counter proposal-this plan. it urged the articles of confederation to be the basic structure of the government while allowing congress to tax and regulate trade. After vote of seven to three, the virginia plan was adopted as basis for further discussion.
Great Compromise
..., At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state's representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each., , the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population). taxes would also be apportioned on basis of population- white population plus 3/5 of blacks
Charles Beard
He wrote An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution in 1913. He believed that the delegates of the Constitutional Convention had selfish economic interest in the outcome. He argued that the delegates represented an economic elite of speculators in western lands, holders of depreciated government securities, and creditors whose wealth was mostly in "paper." He provided useful arguments of the unquestioning hero worship of our founding fathers. He has been proven wrong because the founding fathers had no compelling stake in paper wealth, only in land holding.
Elastic Clause
law that government should provide for the general welfare of people and all laws necessary to effectively carry out other laws are allowed to be added.-
Supreme Clause
..., a clause in Article VI that declares the Constitution, acts of Congress, and treaties are the "supreme Law of the Land"
The Federalist Papers
..., Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists. and to promote ratification in new york.
Anti-Federalists
..., They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
Bill of Rights
these were implemented to satisfy the several states that made it a condition of their ratification(mostly the anti-federalists) it protected the citizens rights- an extra precaution. freedom of speach, press, and religion. right to trial by joury and due process law- forbade "unreasonable searches and seizures- protected individuals against self incriminiation and crimnal cases.
Judiciary Act of 1789
t, Article Three of the United States Constitution created the Supreme Court and gave Congress the power to establish inferior courts. This landmark statute was adopted on September 24, 1789 in the first session of the First United States Congress. The law established the U.S. federal judiciary: it set the number of Supreme Court justices at six: one Chief Justice and five Associate Justices; it established a circuit court and district court in each judicial district; and it created the office of Attorney General.
Treaty of Fallen Timbers
In 1792, Congress steps in to authorize the creation of a 5000 man army to go into the Northwest territory andd deal with the Indian problem once and for all. The troops who make up the region are trained to use the same hit and run tactics, the same camouflage techniques, etc as the NA used. The battle they fight is successful
• **Ends threat from Native Americans in Northwest Territory
• 7 tribes sign treaty with US- most of the territory that makes up Ohio and Indiana is given over to the US (the tribes who lived in that land moved to the West)
Hamilton's Economic Program
set on trying to restore debt of us. started by banks of us. started a whisky task. checked the us credit- kept the income more than outcome. first bank of us. tariff to protect american man- (if buy something from another country put tax so buy from American)
Whiskey Rebellion
• Farmers in western Pennsylvania found it expensive to transfer bulk grain east to NY--> had idea to make alcohol out of it because its easier to ship that product.
• The tax gets these farmers mad-
o Tax collectors were attacked
o Farmers who tried to evade the tax were arrested (and brought to federal court)o These are anti-federalists- theyre nervouse like the Bostonians had been with the Stamp Act. Theyre suspicious of the power of the government.
Democratic-Republicans
Limited central govt; states rights (based on 10th amendment)
Pro-French; Anti-British
Southern planters, small farmers, immigrants
Become the majority party after 1800
-Democrats
-Whigs
Saying that the federalists are being monarchists
.Thomas Jefferson + Aaron Burr
Citizen Genet
this is the french embassador in american who tries to set up an army to attack spanish florida and trying to recruit american ships as pirateers. he is thrown out of the country because washington declared neutrality when comes to foreign wars
XYZ Affair
..• French position- we will stop seizing American ships IF the US loans France 12 million dollars + provide a ¼ million dollar bribe to each of the French negotiatiors (mr X, mr Y, Mr z) + apologize to tehe French government for the slights made against the French government
• American Repsonse: Congress make navy to protect American Ships, American populations dislikes France.
Jay's Treaty
...france and GB were at war and britihs wer seizing american ships on way to france and french colonies. us strongly protested and this treaty resulted.terms: GB agreed to move all troops from american soil- repair ships and cargo taht was seized. british west indies now open for trade.GB stil claimed rights to seize ships. and said american needed to pay for debts from revolution
Pinckey's Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo)
spain wants to work out problems with US.
terms: us free nagivation of mississippi river. us hav right to establish warehouses in new orleans for american goods. both agreed nto to incite native americans agaist eachoter. establish boundary between american territory(georgia) and spanish florida
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
response to alien and sedation acts. democratc-republicans see these acts as proof of what the've been saying- when central gov too string-individual rights lost. therefore give a compact theory of how gvt. should work: const. between states-limited givt powers. all powers gov no have given to states. when govt. overeaches w power doesnt have- staes can declare void.
Louisiana Purchase
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
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