psyc ch. 1
Terms in this set (34)
any unfounded "system" resembling psychology. not based on scientific research
phrenology, palmistry, graphology, astrology
types of pseudopsychologies
tendency to believe positive or flattering descriptions of yourself
when we remember or notice information that fits one's expectations, while forgetting things that conflict them
always has a little something for everyone. tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in very general terms
personality traits revealed by the shape of the skull and bumps on your head.
a german anatomy teacher from the 19th century who founded phrenology
lines on your hands or palms predicts the future and reveals personality
uses handwriting to determine traits about individuals
uses the positions of the stars and planets (at the time of one's birth) to predict personality traits and behavior. the most popular of the pseudopsychologies
greek origin of psychology meaning "mind"
greek origin of psychology meaning "knowledge of study"
the scientific study of behavior and mental process of both humans and animals
behaviors that can be directly observed (crying)
behaviors that cannot be directly observed (dreaming)
"commonsense" beliefs about behavior are often wrong. psychologists prefer ____; an empirical investigation structured to answer questions about the world in a systematic way
description of behaviors, understanding, prediction, control
the goals of psychology
to control unwanted behaviors (smoking, fits)
positive use of gaining control
to control peoples' behaviors without their knowledge
negative use of gaining control
Ability to analyze, evaluate, compare, critique, and synthesize information.
Challenge conventional "wisdom"
Willingness to reflect on ideas
Finding weaknesses in one's reasoning
Looking for alternate conclusions
Revising one's understanding
what is critical thinking?
Few truths transcend the need for logical analysis and empirical testing
What would it take to show that a truth is false?
Authority or claimed expertise does not automatically make an idea true
Judging the quality of evidence is crucial
Critical thinking requires an open mind
Principles of critical thinking
the scientific method
A form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and controlled observation.
Gather Evidence/ Test the Hypothesis
the 6 steps to the scientific method
a system of "established" ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data and predicts future observations.
The predicted outcome or an educated guess about the relationship between variables
Theories are a set of established concepts that have been tested MANY times, while hypotheses are predictions about what the outcome of an experiment will be.
Theory vs. hypothesis
Do no harm
Accurately describe risks to potential participants
Ensure that participant is voluntary
Do not unnecessarily invade privacy
Examples of research ethics
Considered the "father of psychology." studied conscious experience and introduced introspection
Reactions to various stimuli
any physical energy that affects the person and provokes a response
Brought Wundt's ideas to the US and renamed them "structuralism." tried to analyze "structure" of mental life. Like Wundt he used introspection
Structuralists frequently disagreed over observations
No objective way to settle disagreements
Introspection still useful in some studies (e.g. hypnosis, meditation, problem solving, moods).
Reasons why introspection proved to be a poor methodology
Broadened psychology's scope to include animal behavior, religious experience, abnormal behavior, etc. He was inspired by Darwin and natural selection theory. Studied how the mind functions to help us adapt. Applied the term functionalism