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Predation, Herbivory, and Parasitism
Terms in this set (43)
Predators and herbivores can limit the _________ of species.
Populations of consumers and consumed populations _______
in regular cycles
Predation and herbivory favor the evolution of ______
Introduced, exotic, or non-native species are....
introduced to a region of the world where they have no historically existed
______ are introduced species that spread rapidly and negatively affect other species
After WW2 when the brown tree was introduced in Guam the effect on island fauna was _________
Unique type of predator that can also limit the abundance of prey
Relatively small carnivores that consume herbivores (coyotes, weasles, feral cats)
Predators that typically consume both herbivores and predators (mountain lions, wolves, sharks)
Mesopredators have expanded their geographic ranges because
humans have reduced top predators
Australians reduced the abundance of dingoes and feral dogs bc they are predators to sheep which led to an
increase in the number of red foxes (mesopredators) which eat three times the number of sheep as dingoes and feral dogs
Beetle eats the Klamath weed which is native to Europe and introduced to California and has now eliminated _____ of the weed pop
The effects of herbivores may be seen by_______
fencing areas or removing herbivores to prevent grazing.
the long-term fencing of an area to prevent deer herbivory has allowed a much________amount of plant growth.
When researchers removed sea urchins from a rocky shore habitat, the biomass of algae ________
The synchrony of population cycles between consumers and the populations they consume suggest that oscillations are the result of _____
interactions between them
Prey population cycles can be achieved when the environment is complex so that predators cannot easily find prey
Stable Predator Prey
Predatory mites disperse by______, whereas prey mites disperse by _________ from orange to orange
Wooden posts were placed on trays as jumping points between oranges and gave ____________
prey mites a dispersal advantage
The relationship between the density of prey and an individual predator's rate of food consumption
Whenever prey density increases and a predator can consume a higher proportion of those prey, the predator can _______
regulate the growth of the prey population
When a predators rate of prey consumption increases in a linear fashion with an increase in prey density until satiation occurs
Type 1 Functional Response
In Type 1 functional response, as prey density increases, predators consume ________
a constant proportion of prey until satiation
when a predator's rate of prey consumption begins to slow as prey density increases and then plateaus; often happens because predators must spend more time handling more prey.
Type II functional response
when a predator exhibits low, rapid, and slowing prey consumption under low, moderate, and high prey densities
Type III functional response
Low consumption at low prey densities may occur for three reasons:
1. Prey can easily find a place to hide
2. Predators have less practice at locating and catching prey but develop a search image at higher prey densities
3. Predators can do prey switching by changing their diet preferences to the more abundant prey
A learned mental image that helps a predator locate and capture food
Predators that spend most of their time moving around looking for prey (Birds on lawn) exhibit....
Lying and waiting for a prey to pass by (chameleons and insects)...
Ambush sit and wait hunting
______ occurs when a prey moves away from a predator
To avoid being detected by a predator some prey
Camouflage that allows an individual to match its environment or breaks up outline to better blend in with environment (katydids, horned lizards)
______ defenses reduce a predator's ability to capture, attack, or handle prey
Porcupine's sharp barbed quills that can penetrate the flesh of an attacking predator is an example of ________
A strategy where distastefulness evolves in association with very conspicuous colors and patterns
Warning coloration (aposematism)
palatable species evolve warning
coloration that resembles
unpalatable species (e.g., hover flies and hornet clearwings
resemble the common wasp).
when several unpalatable species evolve a similar pattern of warning coloration (e.g., several species of butterflies have evolved similar warning coloration).
When two or more species affect each other's evolution; selection for prey defenses should favor the selection for counter-adaptation in predators.
Lives in or on another organism (host)
Consumes host resources
Causes harm to host
Type of parasite that causes infection
Parasite that lives on the outside of an org
Parasite that lives inside an org
(e.g., ticks, mites, lice, fleas)
Includes some leeches, lampreys
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